A roundtable discussion was held on September 12, 2011, at Busboys & Poets in Washington, D.C. It featured Michael German, Policy Counsel to the ACLU on National Security, Immigration and Privacy. He was also a former Special Agent for the FBI. Ralph Nader was on the panel and served, too, as the moderator for the event. It dealt generally with the "US government's reaction to 9/11." Mr. German said that the FBI can open a file for full investigative purposes on any individual if they suspect that person "might commit a federal crime in the future." He added: "No suspicion of wrongdoing" is needed, however, for them to launch spying tools against "a target." Mr. German underscored that the FBI had opened "80,000" of these kinds of intrusive cases over "a two year period" a few years back, and only "a little more than 3,000 actually turned into real investigations." See for background: SpyFiles  and FBISpying .