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It Was the Oil, Stupid

By Cindy Sheehan
Day 25
The Peaceful Occupation of Crawford

"If Zarqawi and bin Laden gain control of Iraq, they would create a new training ground for future terrorist attacks," Bush said. "They'd seize oil fields to fund their ambitions. They could recruit more terrorists by claiming a historic victory over the United States and our coalition."(George Bush, August 30, 2005 in San Diego.)

So it is official, Casey had his blood shed in Iraq for OIL. He died so we could pay over 3.00/gallon for gas. Like I suspected all along, my dear, sweet son: almost 1900 others; and tens of thousands of innocent Iraqis died so the oil fields wouldn't "fall into the hands of terrorists" and so George and his immoral band of greedy robber barons could become wealthier. Like I have said all along: how can these people sleep at night and how can they choke down their food knowing it is purchased off of the flesh and blood of others? We have found our "Noble Cause." And it is OIL. This man and his handlers need to be stopped.

Well, George and I are leaving Crawford today. George is finished playing golf and telling his fables in San Diego , so he will be heading to Louisiana to see the devastation that his environmental policies and his killing policies have caused. Recovery would be easier and much quicker if almost ½ of the three states involved National Guard were not in Iraq. All of the National Guard's equipment is in Iraq also. Plus, with the 2 billion dollars a week that the private contractors are siphoning from our treasury, how are we going to pay for helping our own citizens in Louisiana , Mississippi, and Alabama? And, should I dare say "global warming?" and be branded as a "conspiracy theorist" on top of everything else the reich-wingers say about me.

We are now packing up Camp Casey and leaving Crawford and heading to George's place of employment. He wouldn't talk to us, his employers, while we were here to give him his "job evaluation," so we must go to him to have our little chat.

I just want to thank a few people and groups for their support, help, and love while we have been here in Crawford. So many people made the Camp Casey experience possible and so successful. If I miss someone, I am so sorry: that is the difficult thing about thanking people. I love you all, even if I don't remember to thank you!!

My sister: Dede Miller: My kids' second mom who is always by my side and supports me 100% in whatever I do. My cause is her cause, and I couldn't do what I do without her.

Carly, Andy, and Janey: Who would love to see more of their mom, but who understand that we are trying to save their future by what we do. I love you guys, and I will see you very, very soon (yea!!) I couldn't do what I do without their love and support.

The Crawford Peace House: I got an email from Hadi Jawad the day that I decided to come and camp in Crawford and he pledged the help and support of the Peace House. At that time, they only had a few bucks in their checking account and the phone was turned off. Now, thanks to America, they have been able to keep Camp Casey going and they will be able to continue their good works indefinitely. Thanks to John Wolf who had the vision for peace in Crawford and I think that Camp Casey was a fulfillment of his vision. They are going to make a garden and call it "The Casey Sheehan Memorial Peace Garden." What a tribute to my son.

Code Pink: Jodie Evans and Tiffany and Alicia were the first ones here on Monday 08/08 to jump in and save me from going crazy and hopping on one of the trains that runs past the Peace House and pulling an "Agatha Christie." Code Pink also worked tirelessly (and I mean tirelessly) outside of Camp Casey.

MoveOn: For organizing the highly successful candlelight vigils.

Lisa Fithian: For all the organizing work she did behind the scenes.

GSFP, IVAW, MFSO, AND VFP: Our organizations with "skin in the game" for all of their support, presence, love, and help.

Bill Mitchell: Bill's son Mike, was KIA in the same battle as Casey and he was the first GSFP member to come to Camp Casey and take some of the heat off of me. He found a new love at Camp Casey (one of our miracles) and I am sooo happy about that. Plus, Bill is one of my most ardent supporters and he just gets in the middle of things, digs in, and helps wherever. I love him and he and his family will be parts of our family forever.

Fred Mattlage: For donating the amazing piece of land for our use that allowed Camp Casey to expand to include thousands.

Air America: The Morning Sedition, Randi Rhodes, Mike Malloy, and Laura Flanders. Thank you for your support . Ed Schultz belongs there, too, although he is not affiliated with Air America Radio. Amy Goodman was here, too!

The bloggers on The Daily Kos (and most bloggers in general): I would read their comments everyday after I posted my diary and I was always heartened and encouraged by their remarks. After all of the negativity, their positivity gave me strength to go on. In addition, the first night we were in Crawford, and being harassed by the SS, they were posting things and getting the word out that we were there alone and defenseless, which may have saved our lives, or saved us from being injured, or harassed out of there.

So many other people: The Camp Casey volunteers…literally hundreds. The more than 10,000 people who came through CC. Ann Wright who kept CC going. Arianna Huffington for her advice and support. Joan Baez who kept CC's spirits alive while I was in California attending to my sick mother. George Bush for not meeting with me on August 6th. Martin Sheen for his support and presence. A.I.M for Dennis Banks and Russell Means. Gary Hart, John Conyers, Maxine Waters, Barbara Lee, Sheila Jackson Lee, Jan Schakowsky, Dennis Kucinich, Frank Pallone, Lynn Woolsey, Chuck Hagel, Ralph Nader, Jim McDermott, Walter Jones, Charlie Rangel and the other politicos who either came to CC, or called me to offer their support and love. I know I am forgetting some, but thanks to you all. Joe Wilson and his family for paving the way for me to be able to ignore and dismiss the reich-wing smear machine who always tried to marginalize and discredit me by exaggerating or twisting my words and lying about me. The clergy who were there with their love and support: Rabbi Arthur Waskow, Rabbi Dennis Shulman; Rev. Al Sharpton, Rev. Bob Edgars, Rev. Jesse Jackson (who prayed bed time prayers with me), Rita Brock, etc.

There were so many good people who donated money, goods, or services who want to be kept anonymous.

But especially to Americans who resonated with Camp Casey and gave us prayers, support, money, love and most of all hope for the future.

We will take our country back. And it will be a country that we want back.

God Bless America!!!!

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The "Baaahhhh" sound comes from the sheep on the right enjoying it as they take it straight up the ass!
Do you believe everything you read? Maybe us "piss-ignorant, angry, whiners" just don't like being lied to & stolen from while your kind obviously do or are just too fucking dumb to realize it! Maybe you can't even comprehend the little article you posted. I'll make it easy for you- just read the first & last line.
"U.S. employers created a solid 169,000 jobs last month and the unemployment rate fell unexpectedly to its lowest level in four years..."
"The service side of the economy created 156,000 jobs."
Do you know what that means? Of course you don't. It means all the people that lost good jobs in manufacturing and other high paying sectors of the economy are now going back to work at Taco-Bell and Wal-mart. And you believe the spin that this is somehow good news don't you? Keep your head up your ass so you can suck that cock as it keeps slamming you!

it sounds like you're one of those angry lefty folks lacking the qualifications for even a McJob. there will be many damn good paying jobs during the rebuilding of new orleans, biloxi, mobile, etc.

there's only one hitch in that giddyup: you have to do something called work. so pull your pointy little head out of michael moore's big fat ass and get a clue: yer a fuckin' loser!

Leave it to a bushite to come up up with an upside to Katrina. Theres going to be good paying jobs to rebuild New Orlens Biloxi, Mobile, etc. Yea this is the kind of jobs we were hoping for! Get your head out out of your ass you stupid fu#@%$ and finaly realize that GWB is the biggest moron we have ever had as a president.

What is it about working for a living that gets you communist cocksuckers so fucking upset? Is it because so many hard working people have left you in the dust, sucking Michael Moore's gas? Because so many of them have been "suckered" by the evil capitalists and now have substantial assets as a result of investing in the American Dream?

Check this out, whiner: Gulf Coast Jobless Rate Could Be 25%


The jobless rate in the hurricane-ravaged Gulf Coast is expected to spike to 25 percent or higher, and when the long rebuilding process begins it's likely the same people the economy had left behind before the storm - the unemployed and working poor - will have the most trouble getting back on their feet.

Workers in flooded New Orleans, which faces major cleanup challenges, are taking the biggest hit.

"There's no question that the recovery is going to be much longer and more painful for the 28 percent of the local population in the New Orleans area living below the poverty line," said Liz Ann Sonders, chief investment strategist at Charles Schwab. "It's going to be much harder for the local economy to recover in the absence of resources and insurance."

Lives and livelihoods are in limbo, perhaps for a long time since it could take years to rebuild the city.

"It's just so devastating. You got to shore up the levees and get rid of the water before you can restore the necessities - electricity, water, sanitation, telecommunications. The engineering challenges faced will be gigantic," said Stuart Hoffman, chief economist at PNC Financial Services Group.

Rebuilding strategic oil facilities and ports will be a priority - eventually bringing people back to their jobs, Hoffman said.

But smaller Mom and Pop shops - and their workers - probably face a more precarious future. Some small businesses, restaurants and hotels likely won't reopen. Casinos built on barges along the coast that were damaged or destroyed probably will resume operations, though some uprooted casino workers may seek employment elsewhere, such as Las Vegas or Atlantic City.

"The populations in Louisiana and Mississippi are incredibly poor. Most of the damage was from flooding, which doesn't tend to be covered by insurance. That combination adds up to an incredibly long and painful rebuilding process- I think five to 10 years," said Mark Vitner, senior economist at Wachovia.

Mississippi last year ranked the lowest among all 50 states in terms of per capita income, $24,650, according to the Commerce Department's Bureau of Economic Analysis. Louisiana was ranked No. 42, with per capita income of $27,581. Alabama placed 40th, with per capita income of $27,795. The nationwide per capita income last year was $32,937.

Poverty rates for the three states also are higher than the national average.

It's too early for any hard numbers on how many people have lost their jobs because of the hurricane.

Phil Hopkins, managing director of U.S. regional services for Global Insight, estimates at last a half-million people, while Rajeev Dhawan, director of the economic forecasting project at Georgia State University, said it may be 1 million.

The situation probably will propel area unemployment rates into double digits in coming months, even when accounting for employment gains from rebuilding efforts, Hopkins said.

The seasonally adjusted unemployment rate in the area of New Orleans, Metairie and Kenner was 4.9 percent in July, Hopkins said, based on his calculations. He said the jobless rate there could easily climb to 25 percent.

In the storm-slammed area of Gulfport and Biloxi, Miss., the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate in July was 5.7 percent, Hopkins said. That rate could rise to around 20 percent or higher, he added.

"It's a pretty sizable impact. Commerce has come to a standstill in those counties that were hit," Hopkins said.

The unemployment rate for the United States as a whole was 5 percent in July.

To help ease the economic pain, the Department of Labor announced Friday that it is providing an emergency grant of up to $50 million to create 10,000 temporary cleanup and recovery jobs for displaced workers in Mississippi.

Though the affected communities account for a small slice of the United States' overall economic activity, the storm's economic impact is being felt by consumers and businesses around the country because the Gulf Coast region is an essential hub for oil and gas production and distribution. The area also is home to vital shipping and transportation links that allow grain and other goods to flow out of the country and coffee, bananas and other cargo to flow in.

The powerful and deadly Katrina - likely to be the costliest natural disaster in U.S. history - has knocked out oil refineries, shuttered businesses and crippled the flow of commerce through ravaged ports, roads and railways.

On Capitol Hill, lawmakers are talking about ways to help out local economies. That includes the possibility of loans, loan guarantees or direct assistance to state and local governments in Mississippi, Louisiana and Alabama, said House Majority Whip Roy Blunt, R-Mo.

"We also need to be looking at the long-term economic impact not just to the states affected, but to the economy of the entire region," Blunt said.
comment: yes, many of those affected by Katrina may well be left out during the demolition and rebuilding. That will be a result of lack of education, little or no experience, little or no employment history. Then there are those who are content to sit on their ass and piss and moan that it's hard to get by on welfare benefits but will not do anything to help themselves, including enrollment in the various job training programs.

Y'all can piss and moan about that 'til the damn Longhorns come through the gate, but the fact of the matter is, if someone ain't willing to get off their ass and put forth at least some effort to help themselves . . . well, tough shit. Get it?

So Bush has sort of become the father you have been missing. Did you suck your real father's cock too?

You really have issues about someone having a father, don't you?

That suggests that maybe yo momma was a crack 'ho' and you're just the cheap souvenir from the dude peddling nickle tastes.

BTW, my brother owns six MickeyD's in Chicago. You want a job?

Ive worked all my life in this country at a good job and only to see it go over sea's. So don't tell me I'm not a hard working American sucking Michael Moores gas. I have no problem with working for a living. But when you put the upper elite ahead of the average American then we have a problem. How are we to survive as a nation if we can't make oppertunites avalible to everyone. You may have left me in the dust but that is not by choice. it's an unfortnite fact. We need to rebuild our country's work force and we need to do it now. Why do you feel the need to get on my shit and call me a communist? I'm an American just like you. I just don't think that our current situation has made us stronger as a nation.

Since the post had nothing to do with anything you had posted rearding job opportunites in hurricane country - because you had posted nothing on the subject except for your response, I can only conclude - quite objectively - that you at least sympathize with communist group-think, as you subtly invoke the class warfare mantra, because it was you who decided that the shoe fit.

The fact that you did not invest in yourself and family while working at a good job is nobody's fault but your own. Had you done so, there would have been a financial cushion to assist while you sought new employment or retraining.

Hopefully, you have learned from that and have adopted some personal budgetary guidelines that will allow you to reap the benefits of personal fiscal responsibility in the future.

Remember, Social Security was never intended to be a retirement program; only a supplement to one's personal savings (or employer's retirement program).

I wish you well.

P.S. You should ascertain how your state's US Senators and your local member of Congress voted on NAFTA, CAFTA and WTO to determine where the blame goes for jobs heading overseas.

Another upside in all this is that many of the morbidly obese people shown on CNN (did you see how many there were?) will now have an opportunity to get their weight under control before they have a stroke, heart attack or develop diabetes. As they are processed into new living quarters, they will have free and better healthcare than you or I do.

So, yes, there are upsides, whether you want to admit it or not.

"Texas Contractor"??... aren't trying to overcompensate for something are you? Why is it that you ASS-ume I don't have a job or have a problem with work? Is it because you don't understand how some people can care about any one other than themselves? You can assume what you like. In my experience, it is usually those that have been handed the most and worked for the least that love to point at the poor & blame them for thier own miseries. It's a completely understandable defense mechanism. You have obviously never been poor or had to work for anything and good for you. But, that is why you want to deflect those feelings of guilt that you have about this and accuse me of not doing the very things you know you have never done. Now it's time to be honest with yourself. Your Mommy & Daddy bought you your first car, they were Republicans, what wasn't handed to you was borrowed from a bank, you have some bull shit job you have to dress-up for even though not even a highschool education is required for the position, but that's okay because you like to wear a tie anyway, you were too spoiled and undisciplined to get that degree your folks sent you to college for and now you drive a car you can't afford in a desperate attempt to attract girls that want nothing to do with you because they can see just as easily as me you are a fake and a phony with no mind of your own, only able to follow, like a lost little sheep. Now bend over and spread'em! Daddy Bush is coming home! Squeal little lamb! Put that golf club down. You don't have to pretend anymore.

In reality, numbskull, I quit high school after my pop died and took on a job breaking concrete forms. After doing that for two years, I enrolled in evening courses to get my contractor's license; then started my own business. Things were tough the first year or so, being the "new kid on the block" and such, but I hung in there, even doing other work in the construction industry so I could build up some capital - financial and otherwise.

Ten years down the trail, I look at what I've been able to accomplish and I'm amazed - as well as pleased. I treat my employees like family (why no one has ever quit), and their loyalty is well rewarded in the form of bonuses, 401(k) plan that is matched 1 for 1 up to ten large per year and fully paid PPO medical and dental.

So, Fellofftheworld, take your outhouse view of life and the jealousy you harbor towards those who have had the audacity to succeed [while you wait for the government to bail you out], and stick both up your sweet little communist ass.

and congratulations.

I'm sure daddy would be proud. Thanks for the life story. Sounds like you've told that one a few times. Boring. So, as it turns out after all. You are the one not qualified to work at Mickey Dees. Oh, the irony. I knew I could get it out of you.

Well, Fellofftheworld, your culture of envy, greed and hate certainly drips from your comments.

Tell us, do you hate your parents for not exercising the abortion option your kind holds so dear?

Do you hate them because they refuse to support you, telling you instead to get off your ass and support yourself?

Or is your hate the result of your parents being retired and living comfortably off of their hard-earned savings and not sharing it with you?

Was your self esteem permanently harmed because your parents told you "No" a few times when you were just a little prick?

You see, if you were a mature, responsible adult, you would find some inspiration in what he has said, but your comments demonstrate quite clearly that your highest achievement in life has been becoming the absolute perfect asshole.


I couldn't agree with you more!

To TexasContractor :

Glad to see you have made money the last few years (thanks for the comm) wait to see what bush has in store for your sector!

Hope you have money bank rolled for years...and I do mean years.

Will you have health insurance soon?


enjoy your 401k NUMBERTICK for now..........


good luck with your non-logic for supporting BUSH


all coming to a venue near YOU!

you best go acquire an economics class and fast!

currency trader

Your animosity and hostility towards this guy's success leads me to believe that you are just insanely jealous, not only of the TexasContractor, but of his employees as well.

Explain how I would not be correct in guessing that the econ class you suggest is one that is based on the failed principles of Das Kapital.

As of Friday's closing bell, my investment portfolio is up 39% so far this year; keeping pace with each of the past five.

And yours???

CAPITALISM, I love it so!!!

for now..........tick tick tick

unemployment rate in August to 4.9 percent, its lowest level since August 2001,

You might want to check how low it was during the reign of the Hero of Rwanda.

1-U R a baaa, baa-aaa, ba-ad little sheep for reading this….
2-war crimes against the people…what people are you worried about?? The people of world are the only ones that matter--that’s all the people..not just one set..%*#*&%@$!#!!&O-HELL-O U CUTE LITTLE SHEEP burn your ear?
3-blanket of lies--keeps the blinders on all of us…did U no that they are shearing U cute little sheep to make these blankets of lies? Where does it comes from?…where do the lies come from---your local gov. programming? ….i.e. TV, RADIO, INTERNET no no no don’t U believe any thing like that. unless U take the blinders off, so U can see past the lies…most of U can’t.. they even bragg about it, and U still don’t want to git rid of them, Now that is good programming, are U Skee-rooed or what, U don’t even no do U. And the blankets don’t even keep U warm after they shear Your ASS
4-why do the rulers wage wars that other peoples children have to die for?? How many people have asked that one? The trouble is no one cares, hell the sheep can’t see through there blinders, and the ones who sneek-a-peek, they are told not to believe what they see, only what U R told. So they put them back on..quit reading this PHUKEN BULL CHIT
5-no mention ever of the fact that more people die from the ILL-EAGLE DRUG WAR than any other cause. What they don’t want ya to see, is just how far down the rabbit hole it goes, it’s really pretty dam scary.
We have what I call the almost 100 year war going on right here under your nose, some of you have lost friends or loved ones in this crime action against the people of this country by the people of this country,
It’s not much wonder it was so easy for our war mongering leaders to ILL-EAGLEY attack some one in a different country, and expect them to lie down and take it just like the American people did, wow to bad some people fight back to protect there home, why are American people such cowards, (sor-rie!, U cute little sheep!) and we would not even have to fight, see that’s part of the problem war is money, peace ain’t..the people in charge of this ILL-EAGLE DRUG WAR they can not have peace, so what happen if we the sheepole shuved peace in there face. IMAGAIN if they could not make all those billions of $$$ to spend on starting other wars to steal stuff from others, that we would not even need, like OIL, IF JUST HEMP was not ILL-EAGLE, we would not need there dammed oil, can any one, ANY ONE tell me why HEMP is or ever was made ILL-EAGLE? O-HELL-NO. no body ever lied to U and got away with it.
u r not still reading this ru
now if you can not see the connection that the drug war has on us all---, what about all the gang violence, what finances all that? how do we stop it, HOW DID WE GET IT,? They have ewe sheep convinced that it’s just what U need, where dose that come from?? What the hell do you think the drug war is. It’s just like the other wars they have started, they don’t expect any one to fight back, well that’s all it is when a cop gets killed--another victim of your dammed drug war, but I no I’m NOT just one of those crazy sheep just cause I know what is, I’ve lived it, I’ve seen things cause I refused to be issued blinders, my parachute works, U better pull the cord quick, see if U have one packed in there.
This one don’t need a Number, it covers them all..
WORST THING I could think of…we are all victims of the ILL-EAGLE DRUG WAR …how do we as victims do any thing?? What can we do ?? ARE U a victim Turn your self in…U ARE a victim
What the hell does that mean that is the whole problem, it is the only way out and no one wants to see, (blinders) what do U think, are U a victim of this ILL-EAGLE drug war? Most sheep don’t think so , but can’t figure out Y your grandmother was just KILLED for her purse. Probley some mommie sheepole wanted milk money for there kids, HUH? COULD NOT have been your ill-eagle drug war..

The Leftisphere is becoming even more unhinged. :-)

I'M sure U must be one of those bags of dead meat. U r rite i am becomeing unhinged with all the phuken lies u not so right righties toss around, I'm also becoming unglued unpluged and pissed I wish I could help sheepole like you pull UR head out of bushes ass.

A bird in the bush is better than a bush in the white house


Since when is something like TOTM a name? What's it stand for? Does it really mean something?

U cute little sheep, to bad U can't think for ur self, U could come up with something besides...Anonymous and that ain't even verified.
If any one out there would bother to check things out for ur self. U will find out that the war that is killing yor sons and doughters, is just as much for ILL-EAGLE DRUGS(drug war) as it is for oil.God help this crime family when U sheepole find that to be just as true as IT WAS THE OIL STUPID.....It's all here on your internet, U just have to care enough to go and look, OH that's right U are not allowed to remove yor blinders. Yea my grandmother was killed for $17 to buy one of U sheepols milk for yor kids, RITE? Top Of The Morninn, that's what the cop said to me when they come to tell me.

Now that's PEACE FOR YA yahavetogeturownLOVE
still TOTM

Just in case you missed the morning's headlines, TOTM is a MORON.

TRUTH hurts more, and it scares the O-HELL-O out of sheepole, but is that the best defence U have, is that TOTM is a smarton??
Some day U will be mart enough to finger it out,,,,,

PEACE??? YA hate that word don't ya??
No animals on earth will have peace, until all animals on earth have peace…
If ya are what U eat, most of U R a bunch of DEAD MEAT!!!!

AUGUST 28, 2005
Mandatory evacuation ordered for New Orleans
NEW ORLEANS (AP) — In the face of a catastrophic Hurricane Katrina, a mandatory evacuation was ordered Sunday for New Orleans by Mayor Ray Nagin.

Acknowledging that large numbers of people, many of them stranded tourists, would be unable to leave, the city set up 10 places of last resort for people to go, including the Superdome.

The mayor called the order unprecedented and said anyone who could leave the city should. He exempted hotels from the evacuation order because airlines had already cancelled all flights.

Gov. Kathleen Blanco, standing beside the mayor at a news conference, said President Bush called and personally appealed for a mandatory evacuation for the low-lying city, which is prone to flooding.
WASHINGTON — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers said Thursday that a lack of funding for hurricane-protection projects around New Orleans did not contribute to the disastrous flooding that followed Hurricane Katrina.

In a telephone interview with reporters, corps officials said that although portions of the flood-protection levees remain incomplete, the levees near Lake Pontchartrain that gave way—inundating much of the city—were completed and in good condition before the hurricane.

However, they noted that the levees were designed for a Category 3 hurricane and couldn’t handle the ferocious winds and raging waters from Hurricane Katrina, which was a Category 4 storm when it hit the coastline. The decision to build levees for a Category 3 hurricane was made decades ago based on a cost-benefit analysis.

“I don’t see that the level of funding was really a contributing factor in this case,

New Orleans mayor no Giuliani

By James G. Lakely
September 2, 2005

The leadership skills of New Orleans Mayor C. Ray Nagin have been put to the ultimate test this week, a test some critics say he is failing as his storm-ravaged city descends into chaos, violence, looting and despair.

The New Orleans Times-Picayune's Web site has become a clearinghouse for residents of the Crescent City to communicate with their neighbors, and many are taking the opportunity to express frustration with their mayor.

"Where are you?" one person asked on the Web site. "Be a man and take care of your people."

Another person said he liked Mr. Nagin but wondered, "Where is command central? Can we get some sort of plan, any plan, other than busing the refugees from dome to dome?"

Mr. Nagin, a former cable TV executive, was elected three years ago at the age of 45 after promising to reverse the city's reputation for corruption. Now, he finds himself saying things about his city that he never could have dreamed possible.

"We're not even dealing with dead bodies," he said of his instructions to rescue workers Tuesday. "They're just pushing them on the side."

In the immediate aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Mr. Nagin even excused looting -- until nonessential items started turning up in people's shopping carts.

"It's really difficult because my opinion of the looting is it started with people running out of food, and you can't really argue with that too much," he said. "Then it escalated to this kind of mass chaos where people are taking electronic stuff and all that."

Three years ago, Mr. Nagin boasted of turning around one of Cox Communications' most underperforming cable franchises, serving as chairman of the United Negro College Fund's Walkathon fundraising campaign and being elected president of the 100 Black Men of Metro New Orleans.

Today, he is trying to shepherd the only large city in America that has experienced such shocking destruction and death -- save New York City on September 11. Some commentators are panning Mr. Nagin's performance compared with that of Rudolph W. Giuliani, who was universally praised for his disaster response in New York.

"On television this week, the mayor has shown no clear inclination to take charge and direct post-Katrina rescue and recovery efforts for his population, as Mayor Giuliani did in New York after 9/11," wrote Nicole Gelina, a columnist for New York's City Journal.

However, the criticism was not universal.

"A fellow Louisianian wants all of you over in the New Orleans area to know just how much you all are in our thoughts and continued prayers," a supporter of Mr. Nagin's wrote on the Times-Picayune Web site. "I know New Orleans will bounce back. We in Louisiana always do. Mayor Nagin, great job."

The mayor is not just a leader of the suffering. He is among them. The name of his cousin, Brad Nagin, is among those listed on an Internet board of missing residents of New Orleans.

My so called cousin and family the nagin side does not give a damn. He didn't care if I died in the hurricane or not neither did my father wayne Nagin. So what I have to say about the Nagin's as a whole fuck'em all. Signed Brad Nagin

Radio host urges poor to loot
Randi Rhodes advises Gulf Coast listeners
September 3, 2005
1:00 a.m. Eastern

In a broadcast yesterday, Air America radio talk radio host Randi Rhodes repeatedly urged listeners in the hurricane-devastated Gulf Coast to go out and loot, insisting the poor should be allowed to steal goods at will.

The leftist host, who has sparked controversy in the past for advocating the assassination of President Bush, said hurricane victims should avoid discount centers such as Wal-Mart and focus their looting on higher-end stores in order to get good quality products, according to Ned Rice, a contributor to National Review Online's weblog "The Corner."

Rice wrote, "I'm not sure if Randi was joking or serious (although with her it's always hard to be sure), but even in jest, should she be allowed to do this on the air?"

In April, Rhodes aired a skit that warned Bush with gunfire, and in a broadcast last year, she imitated the sound of gunfire while saying somebody ought to take the president fishing and then shoot him.

As WorldNetDaily reported, Rhodes opened her show with an audio skit.

The announcer said: "A spoiled child is telling us our Social Security isn't safe anymore, so he is going to fix it for us. Well, here's your answer, you ungrateful whelp: [audio sound of four gunshots being fired.] Just try it, you little bastard. [audio of gun being cocked]."

Government sources took the skit "very seriously," though Air America denies there's any federal probe taking place.

Rhodes has since apologized for the joke, saying it was a "stupid bit."

"If the bit was understood to be a threat against the president," Rhodes explained, "I need to apologize to the president of the United States, and I do. I also need to apologize to the Secret Service [which] has a very, very serious job. If they had to take two seconds out of their day to look into me, I apologize for that. ... But where is the apology when they threaten judges from the Senate floor or from the House floor? Or where's the investigation into [WND columnist] Ann Coulter's mouth? ...

"[My apology] is sincere. I feel bad that anybody would feel threatened by comedy. That's one thing, but I also feel bad that it wasn't funny. And I also feel bad that there could be a perception that I would be advocating violence against anybody, let alone the president of the United States of America. It's no secret that I think he's a terrible president, but I don't think that anybody should have violence advocated against them in any way, shape or form ever! ... That [skit] will never see the light of day again. It was bad."

JERUSALEM - Hamas’ secretive military wing emerged from hiding Saturday, naming commanders and detailing how they attacked Israelis as part of a competition with the Palestinian Authority over who will get credit for Israel’s pullout from Gaza.

The battle over public opinion could determine who rules Gaza after the last Israeli soldiers leave on Sept. 15. Hamas says it drove Israel out with attacks, while Palestinian leader Mahmoud Abbas credits his nonviolent approach.

On Saturday, a defiant Hamas delivered a new challenge to Abbas, who has come under increasing international pressure to disarm the group after the Israeli pullout, but is reluctant to do so.

On its Web site, the Hamas military wing, Izzedine al Qassam, laid bare its command structure for the first time, posting names of seven top operatives, along with photos, biographies and interviews. One of the commanders said the group had more volunteers for suicide missions than he could dispatch.

Hamas is also printing tens of thousands of flyers with the content of the Web site, to be distributed in coming days in mosques and at rallies.

Met by Despair, Not Violence
As they begin to patrol the chaotic city, troops are surprised by what they don't find.

By Scott Gold, Times Staff Writer

NEW ORLEANS — Forty-four troops pressed together in their truck, swaying as one at every bump and turn like reeds in a river.

As they plunged into the dark water engulfing the business district of New Orleans, their wake pushed the body of a woman onto the steps of the Superdome. The floodwater had ripped her pants down to her knees. She was facedown in the muck, a red ribbon still tied neatly around her graying hair.

The troops, members of an elite Special Response Team from the Louisiana Army National Guard, were the first convoy out of what was rapidly becoming a massive military staging ground.

Their mission, simply, is to turn New Orleans into a police state — to "regain the city," 1st Sgt. John Jewell said.

The truck lurched through the streets, past buildings burning unabated and MPs in gun turrets. When they stopped to gear up for their arrival at the New Orleans Convention Center, where more than 15,000 people had been living in squalor since Katrina, these words echoed — for the first time, one would imagine — through the intersection of Poydras Avenue and Carondelet Street: "Lock and load!"

"Sixteen in the clip!" one Guardsman shouted, a common refrain used to indicate that rifles are fully loaded.

But when they arrived, they did not find marauding mobs. They did not come under fire. They found people who had lost everything in the storm and, since then, their dignity.

The troops were part of the Superdome team that came to town before the hurricane. For days, they had been cut off from news reports, sleeping and working among the refugees and the vicious rumor mill at the Superdome.

Their Superdome duties left them with a terrible image of the city. They knew that out on the streets, a police officer had been shot in the head, that looting was widespread, that snipers were taking shots even at boaters trying to rescue victims from rooftops and attics.

Now assigned to patrol the streets, they headed for the New Orleans Convention Center, in the city's central business district. Many had wads of tobacco in their bottom lip and emitted long, dense streams of spittle into the streets below.

Their mission was to establish a command post at the center, which officials have increasingly turned their attention to, particularly as the evacuation of the Superdome nears its end. They would then build a staging area to bring in food and water. Finally, they would send in teams to seize control of a massive and lawless facility.

The troops braced for the worst.

"Is this the calm before the storm?" one asked as they rolled through the streets.

"There are a lot of gangs out here in the water," said Sgt. 1st Class Maris Pichon, a 26-year veteran of the National Guard who served in Afghanistan last year. "This is not going to be a cakewalk."

Two trucks pulled beside them, one carrying water and one a massive pile of ready-to-eat military meals in boxes.

"Tell me they're not letting the food go in before the troops," one Guardsman said.

"That's called bait," another said.

They pulled into a parking lot next to the convention center in full battle mode. They spilled over the sides of the truck, formed a tight circle and began walking outward, stepping over the detritus of the refugees. Dirty underwear. A CD that included the song "Thank God I'm a Country Boy."

A troop carrier rolled over an empty water bottle, popping it like a balloon. The troops yanked their weapons to a firing position before realizing what it was.

"No civilians in this parking lot!" a sergeant shouted. "Hold your perimeter!"

No one came at them but a nurse. She was wearing a T-shirt that read "I love New Orleans." She ran down a broken escalator, then held her hands in the air when she saw the guns.

"We have sick kids up here!" she shouted. "We have dehydrated kids! One kid with sickle cell!"

Another storm victim, Cory Williams, 50, a respiratory therapist spending his third day at the convention center, greeted the troops as they came up the stairs.

He had ridden out the storm at his 9th Ward house. On Tuesday morning, when the flooding began in earnest, 6 feet of water came inside in five minutes, he said. He tried to stay on top of a car in the garage but the water continued to rise, so he made a run for it, dragging several neighbors out behind him on an inflatable raft as he swam, then waded, through the water.

He made it several miles west, toward downtown and higher ground, then watched police stop at gunpoint a Ryder van that had been hot-wired by thieves. The officers told the men inside that they had to stop looting and must try to get people out of the neighborhoods, that people were dying.

"Believe it or not, those dudes got the message," Williams said.

The thieves began ferrying people out of the devastated neighborhoods to the east. The police had deputized looters.

"They had to," Williams said. "There was no other way to get people out."

The thieves dropped him off at the convention center, where he stayed until the troops arrived.

Though there have been reports of shootings and several rapes, the crowd at the convention center does not appear to have degenerated into the kind of chaos and violence seen at the Superdome.

Physically, however, the masses at the center might have been in worse condition than those at the stadium, which was at least prepped as a storm shelter.

People at the convention center had received a single deposit of food and water, dropped from a helicopter, since Katrina's strike. The drop caused a riot; Williams, an Army veteran, said he feared the people clambering onto the pallet of food as it neared the ground were going to pull the helicopter into the parking lot. The craft never returned.

Children slept on laps and on the ground. There was an elderly emphysema patient. A diabetic. The boy suffering from sickle cell anemia, his eyes puffy and his skin yellowish-brown.

The troops arrived Friday, ready for anything.

"You've got to do something," said the nurse in the New Orleans T-shirt.

"We'll get you some help as soon as some people get here," Lt. James Magee said as the troops arrived. "OK?"

Inside, human waste covered the floor. An elderly woman tumbled out of her wheelchair and landed on the ground. Her housedress was soiled. A man had poured fruit punch into an industrial-size bottle of floor cleaner and was drinking it with a straw.

"If you kept a dog in an environment like this, they would arrest you for animal cruelty," said Cindy Davis, 39, the nurse, who had been separated from her group while caring for a patient and stranded at the convention center three days ago. "It's like a cesspool."

Frankie Estes, 80, said she was glad to finally see the troops. It was a glimmer of hope. Friday night marked her fifth night sleeping on the sidewalk in front of the center.

"I haven't had food or water for three days," she said. "I didn't know if I was going to make it."

By Friday night, dinner had been served to a seemingly endless line of refugees. Helicopters had begun descending on the convention center, airlifting the most critically ill. The troops had found their mission. It just wasn't what they thought it was going to be.,0,1220...

He should have been on it at the very begining! Where did the funds go to fix the levey? Probably in there raises!! That should have been fixed a long time ago. Yea! Blame Bush. that is a crock of s---. This should have been done centuries ago!!! Get your faxs straight befor U blame the President!!!

Learn how to spell! governor, levee, their, facts, you. The president appointed his buddies to oversee FEMA under the Dept. of Natonal Security and no one took the responsibility. They all ducked and passed the buck.

Get your facts straight, simpleton! There's no such thing as the "Department of National Security" and do a little thing called research and find out where disaster preparedness begins. Hint: In the real world, it's called local government. I know that bothers you because Mayor Nagin is a sainted Democrat, but the dude's incompetent. Grossly incompetent!



City of New Orleans Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan



Training and education on Disaster Preparedness are essential to local government and non?government disaster agencies, in order to mitigate the loss of life and property in the event of a peacetime emergency. An understanding of emergency operations, plus recurring education and training in emergency response and disaster operations, is the basis of response effectiveness. Individuals with assigned tasks must receive preparatory training to maximize operations. The goal of emergency preparedness training is the preparation of individuals and organizations for effective and coordinated response to emergencies.

Likewise, increasing the public's awareness of the various hazards which may threaten them, and the available methods of protection is the essence of emergency preparedness. In addition, during periods of emergency and disaster it will be necessary for the citizenry to be informed and educated concerning any action that may be required of them to save lives and property. A mechanism must be in place to inform the public as to particulars of evacuation, health care, shelter, transportation and all other directions of which they should be informed.


Under the direction of the Mayor, the Office of Emergency Preparedness will coordinate activities in accordance with the Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan to assure the coordination of training programs for all planning, support, and response agencies. Departments, authorities, agencies, municipalities, and all private response organizations bear the responsibility of ensuring their personnel are sufficiently trained.

The Office of Emergency Preparedness will coordinate training provided by the Louisiana Office of Emergency Preparedness and the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Schedules of state emergency management training will be provided to all appropriate agencies. Applications for LOEP/FEMA courses will be submitted to the Director, Office of Emergency Preparedness for approval and submittal to LOEP.


A. Director, Office of Emergency Preparedness

1. Coordination of all training activities of the various services of the Emergency Preparedness organization so as to obtain the highest degree of effectiveness in individual training, team or unit training, collective training, combined training and mock or practice emergency preparedness alerts.

The Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness shall endeavor to take full advantage of courses offered by the Louisiana Office of Emergency Preparedness (LOEP), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Louisiana Emergency Preparedness Association (LEPA) and other agencies, as well as conferences, seminars and workshops that may from time to time be available, most notably state hurricane conferences and workshops and the National Hurricane Conference. The Director will also establish procedures for the notification of available training opportunities to other City agencies and other governmental and private emergency response organizations. Specific duties to coordinate and monitor available training and educational opportunities shall be an operational task of the Administrative and Training Officer (ATO) of the Office of Emergency Preparedness. The ATO shall maintain close communication with the State Training Officer of the LOEP as to the availability of training opportunities, coordinate classes for local personnel and maintain tracking of courses taken, develop methods of sharing to information with other emergency management personnel within the jurisdiction, as well as arrange training and educational opportunities for non?emergency management personnel, particularly local elected and appointed officials. The ATO, conducts on an annual basis, training and information sharing workshops with all EOC representatives from various agencies. These workshops are conducted at the Emergency Support Function (ESF) level. Workshops include the review of existing EOC/ESF standard operating procedures, review of organization changes that affects EOC or field disaster response operations, updates key personnel lists and identifies training needs of new personnel, and orientation to improvements or changes to EOC/ESF resources or materials. From time to time, the ATO may undertake more intensive work sessions with elements of the emergency response organizations in order to enhance unified disaster planning.

2. Develops and conducts disaster exercises.

The Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness shall continue to exercise all levels of the City government in emergency preparedness and response operations. Annually, a minimum of one full?scale functional exercise that utilizes all levels of City government shall be conducted. This functional exercise shall include the Mayor, elected and appointed officials, independent authorities, and such non?governmental agencies as shall be determined appropriate.

The Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness shall participate in the development and execution of annual Mass Casualty Incidents. This participation may include scenario development, site selection, and recruitment of resources and personnel.

The Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness shall continue to provide assistance to private industry, non?profit organizations, and community organizations through the offering of training, joint drills and exercises, response and recovery plan development, and information sharing. Included in this effort are the following organizations:

* Association of Contingency Planners (ACP)
* New Orleans Tourist and Information Bureau
* New Orleans Hospital Association

The Director shall also develop evaluation procedures either independently or in conjunction with other participants, in order to evaluate exercises and to incorporate necessary changes into the disaster response organization.

3. Coordinates, facilitates and encourages other elements of city government in emergency preparedness and response planning efforts.

The Director shall continue ongoing programs of directing and facilitating City agencies in the improvement of service providing during disasters through the development of emergency response self?assessments, long?term action plans, agency contingency plans, ESF standard operating procedures, and other mechanisms that may be identified.

The City of New Orleans requires every agency of the City government to perform emergency response self?assessments of their abilities to continue to provide essential services during and following a major emergency or disaster. The City further requires that corresponding long?term action plans to address identified short?comings be developed by each agency of the City and submitted to the Office of Emergency Preparedness for review and inclusion in coordinated action activities.

4. Participates in state level exercises.

Annually, in conjunction with the Louisiana Statewide Hurricane Exercise, the Office of Emergency Preparedness will sponsor and coordinate a Parish wide exercise of the local government's emergency management organization. To enhance the State's exercise, the OEP Director shall develop scenarios based upon expected local impacts of the exercise storm. If local impacts from the exercise storm are deemed less than needed to exercise the full emergency response organization, than the OEP may independently develop scenarios that would allow for the exercise of all city/parish resources.

5. Coordinates disaster preparedness training activities with others in such areas as shelter operations, transportation, hospitals and nursing homes, hurricane evacuation and recovery, etc. The OEP shall work in conjunction with all elements of the disaster response organization to enhance emergency response training. Activities shall include identification of School Board and Dept. Of Health staffs to be trained in shelter management operations, providing educational workshops and seminars to public and private entities, develop and direct committees assembled to address critical issues of emergency response, develop specialized informational brochures directed at select elements of the community, and other activities as may be identified.

B. City Departments, Constitutional Authorities, and All Emergency Response Agencies.

1. Ensure personnel are trained in appropriate plans and standard operating procedures (SOP's) for disaster operations.

The City of New Orleans requires that every City/Parish agency prepare an Agency Disaster Report assessing their ability to respond to any disaster or emergency that may either affect their agency or which may call upon that agency to perform response or relief efforts. Each agency, as part of the assessment process , is required to address numerous issues, including the disaster role of the agency, the validity of existing plans and procedures, the training of employees in their disaster response roles, family preparedness, and emergency use and acquisition of resources.

Once the self?assessment is completed, each agency is then required to develop and implement, with the assistance of the Office of Emergency Preparedness, a Long Term Action Plan which will enhance their emergency preparedness and disaster response.

2. Attend, or provide senior staff as representatives to disaster training exercises.

The City of New Orleans, in order to develop a citywide awareness of disaster response functions, requires that each agency designate an Emergency Coordinating Officer (ECO). The ECO is responsible for the preparing and maintaining of emergency preparedness and disaster response plans and procedures for their agency. Part of this responsibility includes participation in disaster training exercises and drills as may be available.

C. OEP Shelter Coordinator

1. Provides shelter management training program to designated shelter managers and disaster services personnel.

2. Maintain trained volunteer cadre for disaster response in areas of mass feeding, damage assessment, etc.

3. Participate in disaster exercises when requested.

4. Develop recruitment programs that will provide the additional manpower required to respond to a major emergency such as a hurricane.

D. Chief Administrative Officer

1. Ensure training programs are conducted for municipal personnel with disaster responsibilities.

2. Ensure participation of key emergency response personnel in City disaster exercises.

3. Conduct local emergency exercises.

E. Orleans Parish School Board.

1. Ensure identification and training of shelter personnel for public shelters utilizing public school locations.

2. Conduct disaster education programs and staff training.

F. Emergency Medical Service

1. Conduct annual mass casualty exercise in order to test response capabilities of emergency response agencies and medical facilities.

2. Conduct oral critique and written after?action reports for the mass casualty exercises.


The City of New Orleans government will conduct at least one functional or full scale training exercise annually, which will test the response capabilities of all functions of city government, as well as the private organizations, Parish school system and other agencies required to respond to disasters.

These tests will be conducted by the Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness and will be reviewed and assessed as to readiness by participants. Qualified observers may assist Emergency Preparedness personnel in evaluating the drills.

Private organizations, such as nursing homes, will be assisted by Emergency Preparedness personnel in conducting disaster drills as requested, and when required by State Law.

On a rotating basis in accordance with the schedule developed with the State Division of Emergency Management, the City shall conduct natural hazard, national security and technological exercises.

The Office of Emergency Preparedness shall conduct hurricane briefings and training sessions with the Mayor and his staff, Department Heads, municipal officials and all other governmental and private emergency response agencies.

On request, the Office of Emergency Preparedness shall brief elected officials on emergency management activities and hurricane preparedness.

The Office of Emergency Preparedness shall conduct hurricane and emergency management seminars when requested.

The Office of Emergency Preparedness shall participate in regional emergency preparedness planning sessions with other parishes and municipalities.



One of the principal goals of the Office of Emergency Preparedness is the education of residents and visitors towards the natural and manmade hazards that do or may threaten our community. Many of the emergency preparedness and management functions directed at informing the public of events or rapidly developing situations is detailed in ESF?14, Public Information.


The coordination of public information activities is a shared responsibility of the Office of Emergency Preparedness and the Office of Communications. Public information procedures are divided into three phases: continuing education, pre?disaster preparation, and post?disaster recovery. Continuing education is intended to increase awareness of disaster potential, improve education on ways to protect life and property, and expand information on the availability of assistance and services. Pre?disaster preparation briefs the public on imminent danger, and provides details about evacuation and sheltering procedures. During the post?disaster phase, the public is informed on such matters as disaster assistance, health precautions, long term sheltering, and other important issues involving the community's recovery operations.

Specific tasks include the development and delivery of pre?disaster information and education programs, the coordination of all City Public Information Officers, the initiation of the proper news releases, announcements, etc., and the making of arrangements for printing adequate literature to facilitate the goal of educating and informing the public. The Office of Emergency Preparedness and Office of Communications shall also devise a mechanism whereby the largest possible segment of the population can be sufficiently educated in disaster events to minimize panic and misunderstanding, including elderly and special needs population.


A. Office of Emergency Preparedness

1. The preparation and dissemination of a general public education program in order to attain high public morale, minimize fear and panic and obtain full individual participation in Emergency Preparedness activities and maximum public support of the emergency management plan.

Public education is the focus of the activities of the OEP Administration and Training Officer (ATO). Although all members of the OEP staff participate in public education, it is primarily the ATO who is responsible for the development of education programs. The ATO shall either utilize materials prepared by other agencies such as the Louisiana Office of Emergency Preparedness, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), or shall develop materials directed at the specific needs or concerns of our local population.

The ATO participates with other organizations in the presentation of disaster preparedness materials and programs. Such programs include corporate emergency preparedness/disaster presentations, presentations to civic and professional organizations, annual hurricane awareness seminars, and special event presentations.

The ATO is the OEP staff member who coordinates and facilitates required family preparedness seminars for City government employees. They are designed to educate employees to their families' needs in anticipation that the employee will not be available to assist in family disaster preparedness and response activities, and to educate families whose City employee spouse, parent, or guardian may not be available for an extended time following a disaster. The seminars discuss potential hazards to the City, evacuation options, job responsibilities, and other subjects.

2. To conduct public information programs providing regular reports to the public on Emergency Preparedness activities. The public information programs include news features on television and radio. Public forums, joint presentations, and speaking engagements will also be conducted.

3. Annually, assist business and media with publication of disaster preparedness and evacuation information.

4. In times of disaster, advise the public of developments and procedures for locating emergency services. During a disaster, the OEP directs calls to the Office of Public Advocacy. Public Advocacy provides current and accurate information to the public.

5. Develop procedures and mechanisms for the notification of persons who can not rely on traditional media sources.

The OEP works closely with the Human Relations Commission to identify and explore the feasibility of alternative notification methods, including new technology designed to assist the hearing and sight impaired.

Local television stations can also use header and footer scrolls across their programming in order to notify the hearing impaired of emergency situations.

The OEP works with the home health care industry to provide emergency preparedness information and educational materials. The EOC also, through ESF?8, Health and Medical, provides status reports of approaching tropical storms to home health providers to assist them in preparing their clients for severe weather.

6. The OEP shall maintain a working relation with the electronic media for the prompt dissemination of emergency related information.

In times of concern for developing events, or actual emergency, local media organizations will participate in the dissemination of public emergency information. Major local television stations will be present in the EOC upon clearance from the Office of Communications, and provide information from the EOC.

During an emergency, the OEP will utilize Cox Cable to facilitate information dissemination. 8. Following a major disaster such as a hurricane, coordinate with State and Federal agencies on news releases and other information being made available to the public. Areas within ESF?14 are designated for State and Federal agencies, where they will be provided work space in close proximity to media briefing and work areas. They will be joined by City public information officers (PIOs) who are trained in EOC public information procedures (See ESF?14, Public Information).

9. Develop procedures and mechanisms to provide proper identification for key response and recovery personnel, for governmental, private relief, and corporate entities.

10. Develop procedures for public identification of shelters, critical recovery services and centers prior to and immediately following a major disaster when all normal public information systems may be inoperable.

The OEP will, via ESF?6, Mass Care, and ESF?14, Public Information, issue constantly updated information on available shelters prior to and during disaster operations, and will utilize extraordinary means when called upon following a disaster to provide updated information.

11. The OEP shall develop procedures for providing information to transient and homeless populations through the procedures as outlined in the Severe Weather Shelter Program.

B. Office of Communications

1. Develop adequate educational materials for dissemination to the public prior to the disaster.

2. Coordinate and develop all news releases to be delivered by elected officials, and consult with other city departments and agencies in development of appropriate bulletins affecting their activities in which the public must be informed.

3. Literature in the form of pamphlets, flyers, circulars, etc., will be made available for public distribution. The literature will cover all aspects of emergency and disaster response.

4. Develop educational and informational literature that will be disseminated to the public concerning disasters. Information from private relief agencies will be included.

5. Prepare and disseminate information to tourists and transient populations as to conditions and best actions to take, time permitting.

6. City officials will be made aware of procedures to be followed in disseminating material and information to the public to avoid confusion.

7. In the event of a major emergency, activate and man the ESF?14, Public Information, and its media?center within the Emergency Operations Center, and operate it under protocols to be established in conjunction with the Mayor's Office and the Office of Emergency Preparedness.

8. Prior to hurricane season, assist in the establishment of ESF?14 procedures and operational guidelines, and conduct media orientations to EOC facilities and procedures.

9. Assist the Office of Public Advocacy in operating EOC Citizen Information Center, and for the coordination of information to be given out and in following up reports received by this hotline.

10. Provide technical assistance in developing public service announcements that can be prepared before hurricane season for later broadcast, when circumstances may not allow adequate preparation time.

Public service announcements are developed jointly between the OEP and Office of Communications. Prior to each hurricane season, the representatives of the OEP shall meet with the Office of Communications to evaluate the need for the development of public service announcements that can be made and stored until needed. Although such "canned" announcements may be developed, live announcements from the EOC shall remain the preferred method. Scripts that reflect numerous contingencies are developed and on file within the OEP, and allow for the editing of information for specific events.

11. Encourage local television and radio stations in development of special programs on hurricanes and other possible disasters.

C. Other Departments and Agencies

1. Other departments/divisions of the City will coordinate efforts with the OEP in the development of educational tools to be distributed to the public.

2. Other agencies will assure that their personnel are aware of procedures for disseminating information during an emergency or during the recovery from a disaster, and that these procedures include not giving out information that has not been cleared by the Emergency Operations Center.



City of New Orleans Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan.



Evacuation planning and actual implementation has to be based upon certain assumptions. It must be understood that the need to evacuate elements of the population can occur at any time, events resulting in evacuations occur with various amounts of lead time and every evacuation will be unique and offer unexpected challenges to those conducting the evacuation. Evacuations in response to hazardous material spills or sudden severe weather are provided with little or no warning, and often have to be accomplished after the fact, and in a disaster response environment. Throughout the Parish persons with special needs, require special consideration regarding notification, transportation, and sheltering. Resources of equipment, facilities and personnel are more difficult to locate and coordinate when an evacuation is required during late night or early morning hours. If possible, advance warning should be given so an evacuation can be coordinated. Adequate provisions should be maintained at all times in order to conduct a warning or alert of an area.

Certain hazards, such as a hurricane, provide some lead time for coordinating an evacuation. However, this can not be considered a certainty. Plus, the sheer size of an evacuation in response to an approaching hurricane creates the need for the use of community-wide warning resources, which cannot be limited to our City's geographical boundaries. Evacuation of major portions of our population, either in response to localized or citywide disasters, can only be accomplished if the citizens and visitors are kept informed of approaching threats on a timely schedule, and if they are notified of the need to evacuate in a timely and organized manner. If an evacuation order is issued without the mechanisms needed to disseminate the information to the affected persons, then we face the possibility of having large numbers of people either stranded and left to the mercy of a storm, or left in an area impacted by toxic materials.

In this day of high-speed communication and wide-spread availability of information, mechanisms do exist to transmit emergency related information to the vast majority of the community. For our most serious threat, hurricanes, information from the National Hurricane Center in Miami and our local office of the National Weather Service, can reach the general population through local governments and mass media outlets. It is the responsibility of the Office of Emergency Preparedness to guarantee that not only is the public alerted, but that other emergency response organizations and personnel are alert and in position to meet the real or potential threat.

Warning for an emergency requires notification at two levels: notification of public officials and response organizations and the warning of the general public. The mechanisms chosen to accomplish these critical events must be rapid in execution and comprehensive in application. This annex outlines the procedures which will be implemented for notifying the emergency response network of its activation, and of informing the general public of the potential or actual occurrence of life threatening events and hazards.

The extent and methods of warnings issued will be determined by the Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness, and are based upon the geographic area impacted. When events necessitate the immediate evacuation of threatened individuals, these decisions may be made by the on scene Incident Commander. Decisions affecting larger geographic areas will be made by the Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness in conjunction with the Superintendent of Fire and Superintendent of Police.

General evacuations that may result from an approaching hurricane will be ordered by the Mayor of the City, upon the recommendation of the Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness. The area affected by the warning may range from blocks and portions of neighborhoods, to the entire city.


The Office of Emergency Preparedness has the overall responsibility for reception and dissemination of warning information through the city.

If the EOC is rendered unusable, the City of New Orleans Mobile Command Center can be utilized to serve as a temporary Emergency Operations Center. Warnings of potential or actual emergencies can be received at the Parish Warning Point from the following sources:

1. National Weather Service (NWS) maintains its office in Slidell, LA. The NWS forecasts weather conditions and originates severe weather bulletins concerning the area. This information is received at the OEP via weather teletype, NOAA radio, and telephone.

2. Emergency Alert System - Replacing the former Emergency Broadcast System (EBS), the EAS can be used by numerous agencies not only to warn the public, but to receive information from other emergency warning and response organizations.

A. Types of Warnings

1. Severe Weather: Severe Weather warnings are issued by the National Weather Service when severe thunderstorms are expected to affect an area producing winds in excess of 57 mph, or hail 3/4-inch or greater.

2. Tornado Watches and Warnings: Tornado Watches and Warnings are issued by the National Weather Service when conditions are favorable for tornadoes to develop or one has been sighted/reported respectively.

3. Marine Advisories: Marine Advisories are issued on a regular basis by the National Weather Service. Those related to tropical weather systems are issued every 6 hours to report the location and strength of a tropical depression, tropical storm or hurricane. In addition to this information, the Marine Advisory provides predicted strength and forecast positions of the storm at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours.

4. Tropical Storm/Hurricane Watches and Warnings: Tropical Storm/Hurricane Watches and Warnings are issued as part of the Marine Advisory when a storm may, or is expected to affect a land mass. A Watch is generally issued when a storm might affect an area within 36 hours, while a Warning is issued when a storm is expected to affect an area within 24 hours. Since Hurricanes contain both hurricane force winds (74 mph or greater) and Tropical Storm force winds (40-74 mph), both may be established for a coastal area. The Hurricane Watch/Warning will be issued for the area where the hurricane force winds are expected or are possible, whereas the Tropical Storm Watch/Warning will be issued for areas on either side of the Hurricane Watch/Warning.

5. Localized Evacuations: Localized Evacuations may be ordered or recommended when an emergency occurs, which affects a relatively small area, such as a Hazardous Materials release or a large fire. Localized Evacuation would also include river or lake flooding caused by strong, sustained easterly winds in low lying areas outside the levee protection system.

B. Methods of Notification

1. Officials and Organizations: The notification of key officials and organizations in the City can be accomplished by several means. Upon notification of an emergency, the Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness will determine who is to be notified based upon the severity, type, and location of the occurring emergency.

a. Emergency Hotline Telephone System: The "Mayor's Hotline" is a pre-programmed telephone system which connects the EOC.

b. Emergency Preparedness FAX: Situational updates and messages of a non-immediate nature can be transmitted to city/parish agencies, other municipalities, emergency operations centers, and the State EOC.

c. Landline and Mobile Telephone Systems: EOC keeps a comprehensive listing of telephone numbers to be called for varying situations. Key officials and personnel are listed by business phone, home phone, mobile phone, and electronic pager number. The general public will be notified of emergencies by all means possible when it is determined to be necessary by the Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness. Warning bulletins will be disseminated by the Office of Emergency Preparedness, coordinated with the Office of Communications. Warnings will generally include areas affected and precautions to be taken.

d. Emergency Alert System (EAS): The Emergency Alert System is the primary means of advising the public of a localized emergency. The primary EAS stations for New Orleans are WWL (870 AM) and WLMG (101.9 FM). The EAS can be contacted by telephone and radio.

2. Media: The broadcast media provide a major part of the city's capability to warn the public in a timely manner.

a. A combination of Live Media Statements and Pre-recorded Messages will be used as a disaster situation develops. Once the Emergency Operations Center is activated, the task of updating the media falls to the Office of Communications.

b. Mobile Public Address Systems: New Orleans Police Department personnel can be called upon to use the public address systems built into their vehicles.



The safe evacuation of threatened populations when endangered by a major catastrophic event is one of the principle reasons for developing a Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan. The thorough identification of at-risk populations, transportation and sheltering resources, evacuation routes and potential bottlenecks and choke points, and the establishment of the management team that will coordinate not only the evacuation but which will monitor and direct the sheltering and return of affected populations, are the primary tasks of evacuation planning. Due to the geography of New Orleans and the varying scales of potential disasters and their resulting emergency evacuations, different plans are in place for small-scale evacuations and for citywide relocations of whole populations.

Authority to issue evacuations of elements of the population is vested in the Mayor. By Executive Order, the chief elected official, the Mayor of the City of New Orleans, has the authority to order the evacuation of residents threatened by an approaching hurricane.

Evacuation procedures for special needs persons with either physical or mental handicaps, including registration of disabled persons, is covered in the SOP for Evacuation of Special Needs Persons.

Major population relocations resulting from an approaching hurricane or similar anticipated disaster, caused the City of New Orleans Office of Emergency Preparedness to develop a specific Hurricane Emergency Evacuation Standard Operating Procedures, which are appended to the Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan.

The SOP is developed to provide for an orderly and coordinated evacuation intended to minimize the hazardous effects of flooding, wind, and rain on the residents and visitors in New Orleans. The SOP provides for the evacuation of the public from danger areas and the designations of shelters for evacuees.


The Hurricane Emergency Evacuation Standard Operating Procedure is designed to deal with all case scenarios of an evacuation in response to the approach of a major hurricane towards New Orleans. It is designed to deal with the anticipation of a direct hit from a major hurricane. This includes identifying the city's present population, its projected population, identification of at-risk populations (those living outside levee protection or in storm-surge areas, floodplains, mobile homes, etc.), in order to understand the evacuation requirements. It includes identifying the transportation network, especially the carrying-capacity of proposed evacuation routes and existing or potential traffic bottlenecks or blockages, caused either by traffic congestion or natural occurrences such as rising waters. Identification of sheltering resources and the establishment of shelters and the training of shelter staff is important, as is the provision for food and other necessities to the sheltered. This preparation function is the responsibility of the Office of Emergency Preparedness.

Conduct of an actual evacuation will be the responsibility of the Mayor of New Orleans in coordination with the Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness, and the OEP Shelter Coordinator.

The SOP, in unison with other elements of the Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan, is designed for use in all hazard situations, including citywide evacuations in response to hurricane situations and addresses three elements of emergency response: warning, evacuation, and sheltering.

1. Warning: Formulates a comprehensive system for public information, early recognition of impending storms, and dissemination of emergency warning.

2. Evacuation: Formulates an effective procedure for orderly evacuation of residents and visitors within available warning time.

3. Sheltering: Formulates a comprehensive system of accessible shelters of adequate size.

The SOP is limited as it is not designed to address the protection of personal and real property, yet is developed to cover the total New Orleans geographic area. The timely issuance of evacuation orders critically impacts upon the successful evacuation of all citizens from high-risk areas. In determining the proper time to issue evacuation orders, there is no substitute for human judgement based upon all known circumstances surrounding local conditions and storm characteristics.

Information received from the National Hurricane Center concerning the storm's tract will allow the focusing on either a landfall, paralleling or exiting storm scenario. Information involving local conditions such as pre-hurricane rainfall, tide schedules, and the amount of pre-storm publicity, must be taken into account, as are the various known circumstances that are explained in the information summary portion of the Hurricane Evacuation Plan, in determining when an evacuation order should be issued. Any assumption regarding where and how the storm will likely make landfall involves clear and constant communication with the National Hurricane Center, the local office of the National Weather Service, State OEP and various local agencies that are monitoring either the storm's progress or other elements of the city's preparedness to weather the storm's passage.

The City of New Orleans will utilize all available resources to quickly and safely evacuate threatened areas. Those evacuated will be directed to temporary sheltering and feeding facilities as needed. When specific routes of progress are required, evacuees will be directed to those routes. Special arrangements will be made to evacuate persons unable to transport themselves or who require specific life saving assistance. Additional personnel will be recruited to assist in evacuation procedures as needed.

Slow developing weather conditions (primarily hurricane) will create increased readiness culminating in an evacuation order 24 hours (12 daylight hours) prior to predicted landfall. Disabled vehicles and debris will be removed from highways so as not to impede evacuation. In local evacuations involving more than fifty (50) families (i.e. 50 single dwelling units), staging areas may be established at the closest available public area outside the threatened area. Upon arrival at the staging area, evacuees will be directed to the appropriate shelter facility. Evacuees will be encouraged to stay with friends or relatives in non-threatened areas whenever possible. Security measures will be employed to protect the evacuated area(s) in accordance with established procedures and situations.

The use of travel-trailers, campers, motorcycles, bicycles, etc., during the evacuation will be allowed so long as the situation permits it. Public information broadcasts will include any prohibitions on their use. Transportation will be provided to those persons requiring public transportation from the area. (See Special Needs Transportation, ESF-1). An orderly return to the evacuated areas will be provided after the Mayor determines the threat to be terminated. Transportation back to the evacuated area after threat termination will be provided as available.


A. Authority

As established by the City of New Orleans Charter, the government has jurisdiction and responsibility in disaster response. City government shall coordinate its efforts through the Office of Emergency Preparedness

The authority to order the evacuation of residents threatened by an approaching hurricane is conferred to the Governor by Louisiana Statute. The Governor is granted the power to direct and compel the evacuation of all or part of the population from a stricken or threatened area within the State, if he deems this action necessary for the preservation of life or other disaster mitigation, response or recovery. The same power to order an evacuation conferred upon the Governor is also delegated to each political subdivision of the State by Executive Order. This authority empowers the chief elected official of New Orleans, the Mayor of New Orleans, to order the evacuation of the parish residents threatened by an approaching hurricane.

B. Issuance of Evacuation Orders

The person responsible for recognition of hurricane related preparation needs and for the issuance of an evacuation order is the Mayor of the City of New Orleans. Concerning preparation needs and the issuance of an evacuation order, The Office of Emergency Preparedness should keep the Mayor advised.


It must be understood that this Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan is an all-hazard response plan, and is applicable to events of all sizes, affecting even the smallest segments of the community. Evacuation procedures for small scale and localized evacuations are conducted per the SOPs of the New Orleans Fire Department and the New Orleans Police Department. However, due to the sheer size and number of persons to be evacuated, should a major tropical weather system or other catastrophic event threaten or impact the area, specifically directed long range planning and coordination of resources and responsibilities efforts must be undertaken.

A. Evacuation Time Requirements

Using information developed as part of the Southeast Louisiana Hurricane Task Force and other research, the City of New Orleans has established a maximum acceptable hurricane evacuation time standard for a Category 3 storm event of 72 hours. This is based on clearance time or is the time required to clear all vehicles evacuating in response to a hurricane situation from area roadways. Clearance time begins when the first evacuating vehicle enters the road network and ends when the last evacuating vehicle reaches its destination.

Clearance time also includes the time required by evacuees to secure their homes and prepare to leave (mobilization time); the time spent by evacuees traveling along the road network (travel time); and the time spent by evacuees waiting along the road network due to traffic congestion (delay time). Clearance time does not refer to the time a single vehicle spends traveling on the road network. Evacuation notices or orders will be issued during three stages prior to gale force winds making landfall.

> Precautionary Evacuation Notice: 72 hours or less

> Special Needs Evacuation Order: 8-12 hours after Precautionary Evacuation Notice issued

> General Evacuation Notice: 48 hours or less

B. Evacuation Zones

Evacuation (vulnerability) zones provide a base to model traffic movements from one geographic area to another. It is necessary to revise the evacuation zones from time to time due to data generated by new generations of storm-surge modeling .

Evacuation zones are designed to meet several functions: (1) In coastal areas they must reflect the areas in each storm scenario which will need to be evacuated due to storm-surge inundation; (2) They should relate as closely as possible to available population data information, such as enumeration districts, census tracts, zip code areas, transportation analysis zones, etc.; and (3) They need to be describable in a manner that persons in the area will be able to understand.

Evacuation zones will be developed pending further study.

C. Evacuation Routing and Traffic Control

New Orleans is surrounded by water. The Lake Pontchartrain Causeway leads to the north, the I-10 twin spans head east, I-10 runs east-west and the Crescent City Connection and the Huey P. Long bridges cross over the Mississippi River. Evacuation presents unique and distinct challenges.

Principle traffic control is provided by the New Orleans Police Department. The movement of evacuating vehicles during a hurricane evacuation requires specific traffic control efforts to insure the maximum roadway capacity and to expedite safe escape from hurricane hazards.

1. Bridge closures will be announced as necessary.

2. NOPD officers will be stationed at critical intersections and roadway segments

3. All available tow trucks shall be positioned along key roadway segments, and disabled vehicles will be removed from traffic lanes. No repairs will be done to vehicles along the evacuation routes.

4. Manual direction of traffic will be supplemented by physical barriers that are adequately weighted and which are placed to channel traffic and prevent unnecessary turning and merging conflicts.

5. The movement of mobile homes and campers along evacuation routes will be banned after a hurricane warning is issued. A disabled mobile home could block the only escape route available. Such vehicles are difficult to handle late in an evacuation due to sporadic wind conditions.

6. Boat owners must be made aware of time requirements for moving or securing vessels. Optimally, industrial and recreational vessels should be moved to safe harbor during or before a hurricane watch.

7. Emergency Response to Accidents/Breakdowns - The intensity of traffic during a hurricane evacuation will always be accompanied by a certain number of traffic accidents and breakdowns. Although roadway shoulders are available for vehicles in distress, the movement of such vehicles to these areas is often difficult and disruptive. It is recommended that at least two traffic control personnel be positioned at each key roadway link/intersection so that one can assist disabled vehicles as needed. Two vehicles should also be positioned at each critical link to facilitate the removal of immobilized vehicles, however, as resources (two vehicles) are available.

8. Safe evacuation is predicated upon the movement of vehicles over critically low points on evacuation routes prior to the occurrence of flooding. Route blockages can happen prior to the arrival of a hurricane. Those roadways that historically experience flooding due to rainfall alone should be monitored for vehicle distress and help.

D. Evacuation Clearance Times

Clearance time is the time required to clear the roadways of all vehicles evacuating in response to a hurricane situation. Clearance time begins when the first evacuating vehicle (as defined by a hurricane evacuation behavioral response curve) enters the road network and ends when the last evacuating vehicle reaches an assumed point of safety. Clearance time includes the time required by evacuees to secure their homes and prepare to leave (referred to as mobilization time). Clearance time DOES NOT RELATE to the time any one vehicle spends traveling on the road network. Clearance time allows for the last vehicle leaving to reach its destination or the parish line, whichever comes first.

Assumptions - Clearance time is based on a set of assumed conditions and behavioral responses. It is likely that an actual storm will differ from a simulated storm for which clearance times are calculated in this report. Key assumptions guiding the analysis are grouped into five areas: 1. Population Data

2. Storm Scenarios

3. Behavioral Characteristic of the Evacuating Population

4. Roadway Network and Traffic Control Assumptions

5. Evacuation Zones

The clearance times facing Orleans Parish for a severe hurricane will necessitate proper traffic control and early evacuating decision making. The evacuation must be completed before the arrival of gale force winds. Evacuation should also start when school is not in session and when there is at least eight (8) hours of daylight included in the evacuation time allowed. Provisions must be made for the removal of disabled vehicles. Flooding of roadways due to rainfall before a hurricane arrives could close off critical evacuation routes rendering evacuation impossible.


A. Mayor

* Initiate the evacuation.

* Retain overall control of all evacuation procedures via EOC operations.

* Authorize return to evacuated areas.

B. Office of Emergency Preparedness

* Activate EOC and notify all support agencies to this plan.

* Coordinate with State OEP on elements of evacuation.

* Assist in directing the transportation of evacuees to staging areas.

* Assist ESF-8, Health and Medical, in the evacuation of persons with special needs, nursing home, and hospital patients in accordance with established procedures.

* Coordinate the release of all public information through ESF-14, Public Information.

* Use EAS, television, cable and other public broadcast means as needed and in accordance with established procedure.

* Request additional law enforcement/traffic control (State Police, La. National Guard) from State OEP.

C. New Orleans Police Department

* Ensure orderly traffic flow.

* Assist in removing disabled vehicles from roadways as needed.

* Direct the management of transportation of seriously injured persons to hospitals as needed.

* Direct evacuees to proper shelters and/or staging areas once they have departed the threatened area.

* Release all public information through the ESF-14, Public Information.

D. Regional Transit Authority

* Supply transportation as needed in accordance with the current Standard Operating Procedures.

* Place special vehicles on alert to be utilized if needed.

* Position supervisors and dispatch evacuation buses.

* If warranted by scope of evacuation, implement additional service.

E. Louisiana National Guard

* Provide assistance as needed in accordance with current State guidelines.

F. Animal Care and Control

* Coordinate animal rescue operations with the New Orleans SPCA.

G. Public Works

* Make emergency road repairs as needed.

H. Office of Communications

* Release all public information relating to the evacuation.


(See ESF-6, Mass Care)

Emergency shelter operations are the responsibility of the Office of Emergency Preparedness Shelter Coordinator. Shelters are provided by the Orleans Parish School Board, while manager training and support activities and supplies are provided by the Office of Emergency Preparedness.

Reassessment of facilities is an on-going process conducted jointly by the School Board, and Emergency Preparedness Division. The shelter activation list is updated yearly, and takes into consideration new school construction, school closings and renovations.

A. Shelter Demand

Shelter demand is currently under review by the Shelter Coordinator. Approximately 100,000 Citizens of New Orleans do not have means of personal transportation. Shelter assessment is an ongoing project of the Office of Emergency Preparedness through the Shelter Coordinator.

The following schools have been inspected and approved as Hurricane Evacuation Shelters for the City of New Orleans: Laurel Elementary School

Walter S. Cohen High School

Medard Nelson Elementary School

Sarah T. Reed High School

Southern University Multi Purpose Center

Southern University New Science Building

O. Perry Walker High School

Albert Wicker Elementary School

It should not be assumed that all of the approved shelters listed above will be opened in the event of a hurricane or other major tropical storm. The names and locations of open shelters will be announced when an evacuation order is issued. This list is not for public information and should not be duplicated and distributed. In the event that shelters are opened, people who go to their nearest listed location may find, for one reason or another, that the facility is not open as a shelter, forcing them to seek an alternate location. It is also possible that people anticipating the opening of shelters may arrive before shelters are set-up and ready to receive them. For these and other reasons, shelters which are to be used will not be identified until they are ready to open and not until an evacuation order, related public announcement is made.

Last Resort Refuges and Super Shelters are described in specific SOPs covering their applications.



City of New Orleans Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan


Following a disaster, once the principal threat has passed and the primary concern of protection of citizens from harm has been addressed, it becomes critical to public safety to ensure the speedy yet orderly recovery of the community. Recovery functions include continued, potentially long?term response operations (such as debris removal and disposal, infrastructure repair, etc.), liaison with State and Federal response and recovery agencies, damage assessment, response to basic needs of citizens whom may have lost their homes, possessions, businesses, or jobs. Emergency management has to be prepared to address the long?term operations needed to return the community to normalcy.


The lead agency responsible for coordinating recovery operations following a natural or man made disaster is the Office of Emergency Preparedness. The Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness shall serve as the initial contact with the Louisiana Office of Emergency Preparedness for the coordination of recovery efforts. In the event of a major or catastrophic event, the activated ESFs within the EOC shall provide liaison services to their corresponding State and Federal ESFs and related agencies. Following the establishment of a local Disaster Field Office (DFO), the Director of Emergency Preparedness shall designate the person(s) to serve as local liaison with the DFO. For certain hazard or incident specific incidents, the lead response agency may continue to be the City's principle coordinating representative.

Once into the recovery phase of a major disaster, ESF?5, Planning and Information, shall assume the liaison function with the State recovery staff, as will appropriate representatives of the various activated City agencies involved in recovery operations. Coordination for the establishment of Disaster Relief Centers, additional staging areas, and other sites that may be needed for coordinated assistance will primarily be the responsibility of ESF?7, Resource Support, and its support agency.

A. Damage Assessment

The Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness shall designate a Damage Assessment Officer to supervise assigned persons in a Damage Assessment Unit (DAU). This unit will have three functional components:

1. Public Sector Damage Assessment Team(s), which will be responsible for assessing the damage inflicted upon publicly?owned property.

2. Private Sector Damage Assessment Team(s), which will be responsible for collecting information on housing and business losses.

3. Human Needs Assessment Team(s), are persons assigned to collect field information on the needs of the community following a disaster that has severely impacted facilities and other community assets that are depended upon for daily living, and to report back to the EOC.

Specific damage assessment procedures and responsibilities can be found in Standard Operating Procedure for Damage Assessment. Impact to the local economy shall be ascertained however possible, but will rely on the following organizations for preliminary information and periodically revised data:

1. Property Appraiser's Office (value of damaged or destroyed properties)

2. City Planning Commission (impact on jobs, etc.)

3. ESF?18, Business and Industry (business specific losses)

Information gathered shall be monitored for inclusion in Situation Reports by ESF?5, Information and Planning. Initial damage assessments shall be accomplished by participation in flyovers conducted by the Louisiana National Guard. City representatives will participate in the flyover. Flyovers will also be used to initially develop a needs assessment for goods and services needed by the community as a result of the disaster. Needs assessment data and information will be tracked by ESF?5, Information and Planning, and distributed to human service response agencies. Other methods used to assess physical damages and develop needs and services estimates include:

1. Additional flyovers.

2. City vehicles, such as trucks, automobiles, off?road vehicles, etc.

3. Riverside damage assessment shall be conducted by the Harbor Police.

4. Where damage is extensive, and roads may not be passable, damage assessment teams may resort to foot patrols.

B. Human Services

Location of Disaster Relief Centers and other recovery operation sites shall be the joint responsibility of ESF?7, Resource Support, and the Damage Assessment Teams, which will scout undamaged or lightly damaged facilities while conducting field surveys. Prior to hurricane season, a list of potential buildings should be compiled that meet the criteria for a Disaster Relief Center or other recovery function. These facilities shall then be checked by damage assessment teams for potential use following a disaster. An inventory of city owned properties will also be available in the EOC and certain facilities, such as large community centers, shall be reviewed for use at the time.

Multiple sites shall be identified and geographically positioned to serve the impacted populations without placing burdens upon those who may have lost their private transportation resources as a result of the disaster. Regional Transit Authority may be called upon to provide free transit to recovery centers located along existing bus routes. Recovery center staffing patterns shall be developed along accepted state and federal guidelines and provided from city, state and private agencies.

Feeding and food and supply distribution sites shall be established following a disaster in geographically distributed sites across the Parish. Feeding sites shall be established by ESF?6, Mass Care, in conjunction with ESF?11, Food and Water. The Southeast Louisiana Chapter of the American Red Cross and the Salvation Army shall provide the lead in establishing and operating these sites. The Second Harvest Food Bank shall provide leadership in the acquiring and distribution of food and water. ESF?15, Volunteers and Donations, shall direct outside resources to the appropriate sites where these volunteer services can best be used. Temporary living areas shall be established when possible on city owned property. ESF?7, Resource Support, shall assist in the location and acquisition of non city owned property. The New Orleans Housing Authority shall be called upon to assist with public housing for the temporarily displaced.

C. Infrastructure

Following a disaster of such magnitude that far exceeds the City's and State's ability to meet the needs of the community and results in the requesting and granting of a Presidential Disaster Declaration, the Office of Emergency Preparedness shall, as previously described, at the request of the Federal Emergency Management Agency or Louisiana Office of Emergency Preparedness, establish Disaster Relief Centers for individuals seeking recovery assistance. These sites shall be established at geographically strategic sites, providing all affected citizens with access to available programs, and shall provide representatives from numerous federal, state, local, and private relief agencies. Locations of the centers, as well as information on FEMA's teleregistration program, shall be made known via ESF?14, Public Information, and all other available information outlets (see ESF?14, Public Information).

For affected governments and qualified not?for?profit organizations, a Public Officials Briefing shall be held. At the briefing, public officials shall be oriented on available assistance and procedures, and shall receive "Notice Of Interest" forms to be filed with state and federal officials. Subsequent "Project Applications" shall be filed with FEMA for further processing. State and federal authorities will evaluate the project applications and determine justification for assistance.

City of New Orleans Department personnel shall serve as the City's principal representatives in preparation of disaster application forms, monitoring of projects to completion and certification, and disbursement of relief funds. The City shall also coordinate the development of Disaster Survey Reports and review and represent the City in negotiations for restitution of losses with federal and state officials.

Debris removal shall be coordinated and executed by ESF?3, Public Works and Engineering. Fallen trees and similar debris shall be disposed of to the extent possible. Methods for disposal of non?mulchable debris shall be determined by ESF?3, in conjunction with local and state environmental officials. Administrative procedures for financial transactions, cost accounting, grants management, document tracking and payroll processing will be implemented by ESF?7, Resource Support. Following deactivation of the EOC, these functions shall be continued by those agencies that staff ESF?7. Procedures and instructions for preparing Disaster Survey Reports and tracking disaster costs have been developed by the City. The City also provides training and instruction on these procedures.



City of New Orleans Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan


Mitigation includes those activities, policies or programs developed and adopted by government officials which will reduce, eliminate, or alleviate damage caused by disasters. Proper and coordinated planning is a prerequisite to effective and efficient procedural changes required in addressing hazard mitigation. The City of New Orleans currently participates in, or has commenced the initial stages of several programs intended to reduce the risk to lives and to minimize damage to public and private properties.


Mitigation programs include coordinated city, state and federal efforts that are currently in place, such as the National Flood Insurance Program, or future actions designed to reduce the loss of life and extensive property damage.

A. National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)

The City of New Orleans is a participant in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). The City's participation is conducted by the City Planning Commission (CPC). Citizens may receive information as to the NFIP rating of their properties at the City Hall (CPC) office. As much of the development now in place in New Orleans was developed prior to adoption of NFIP standards and rating zones, it is anticipated that should a major hurricane strike our area, that many structures, both private and public, would have to be rebuilt or replaced by structures meeting NFIP standards.

B. Future Plans

Future mitigation plans include:

1. Drainage network management.

2. Protection of wetlands and marshes.

3. Floodplain management.

4. Preservation of the levee system.

5. Providing hurricane shelter.

6. Restricting imprudent development.

7. Mitigation actions following natural disasters and post?disaster plan development.

In response to a major destructive storm, future plans call for the preparation of a post disaster plan that will identify programs and actions that will reduce or eliminate the exposure of human life and property to natural hazards. To direct the City's hurricane recovery operations, the Mayor will appoint a Recovery Task Force (RTF). The RTF shall include the Chief Administrative Officer, the Director of the Emergency Preparedness, Public Works Director, Public Utilities Director, Director of Safety and Permits and any others as directed by the Mayor. Staff shall be provided by those appointed, as well as by those elements of the OEP responsible for recovery operations. The RTF shall provide the following tasks:

1. Review and decide upon emergency building permits.

2. Analyze and recommend hazard mitigation options, including reconstruction or relocation of damaged public facilities.

3. Coordinate the preparation of the post?disaster redevelopment plan.

4. Recommend amendments to the Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan, and other appropriate policies and procedures.

5. Coordinate with state and federal officials disaster assistance.

In order to ensure broad?based local participation in guiding long?term redevelopment, the following recommendations are submitted:

1. That the RTF be tasked with overseeing long?term disaster recovery and mitigation efforts, once the life threatening aspects of a major disaster has passed, as an adjunct operation of the OEP.

3. That the RTF shall develop periodic reports on recovery efforts and operations for submission to the Mayor and City Council.

4. That the RTF focus on such issues as Building Code modifications, zoning and land use management, building code compliance and enforcement, retrofitting public facilities, local legislation designed to reduce the risk of life and property in areas vulnerable to the impacts of predictable, recurring hazards.

Looters found despoiling the dead were stood against the nearest wall or pile of debris and shot without hindrance of a trial. The grisly work of collecting the dead continued by torchlight. The workers were issued generous rations of bourbon and strong cigars. They breathed through handkerchiefs soaked in bourbon and smoked cigars to mask the smell.

In the sweltering heat that followed the storm, decomposition was rapid. The bodies soon lost the rigidity of rigor mortis and had to be shoveled into carts. At times the fixed bayonets of the militia were all that kept many of the men at their work. Superintendents of the work gangs were finally given permission to torch the wreckage wherever found rather than try to extricate pieces of flesh from the ruins and cart them away.

“It was like living in a battlefield. The fuel-oil smoke hung over the city, day and night, and the heavy air was never free of the smell of carbolic acid, of lime, of putrefaction.

Mississippians' Suffering Overshadowed

By EMILY WAGSTER PETTUS, Associated Press Writer
5:00 PM EDT

JACKSON, Miss. - Mississippi hurricane survivors looked around Saturday and wondered just how long it would take to get food, clean water and shelter. And they were more than angry at the federal government and the national news media.

Richard Gibbs was disgusted by reports of looting in New Orleans and upset at the lack of attention hurricane victims in his state were getting.

"I say burn the bridges and let 'em all rot there," he said. "We're suffering over here too, but we're not killing each other. We've got to help each other. We need gas and food and water and medical supplies."

Gibbs and his wife, Holly, have been stuck at their flooded home in Gulfport just off the Biloxi River. Water comes up to the second floor, they are out of gasoline, and food supplies are running perilously low.

Until recently, they also had Holly's 75-year-old father, who has a pacemaker and severe diabetes, with them. Finally they got an ambulance to take him to the airport so he could be airlifted to Lafayette, La., for medical help.

In poverty-stricken north Gulfport, Grover Chapman was angry at the lack of aid.

"Something should've been on this corner three days ago," Chapman, 60, said Saturday as he whipped up dinner for his neighbors.

He used wood from his demolished produce stand to cook fish, rabbit, okra and butter beans he'd been keeping in his freezer. Although many houses here, about five miles inland, are still standing, they are severely damaged. Corrugated tin roofs lie scattered on the ground.

"I'm just doing what I can do," Chapman said. "These people support me with my produce stand every day. Now it's time to pay them back."

One neighbor, 78-year-old Georgia Smylie, knew little about what's happening elsewhere. She was too worried about her own situation.

"My medicine is running out. I need high blood pressure medicine, medicine for my heart," she said.

Larry Sabato, a University of Virginia political scientist, said he's been watching hours of Katrina coverage every day and most of the national media attention has focused on the devastation and looting in New Orleans.

"Mississippi needs more coverage," Sabato said. "Until people see it on TV, they don't think it's real."

Along the battered Mississippi Gulf Coast, crews started searching boats for corpses on Saturday. Several shrimpers are believed to have died as they tried to ride out the storm aboard their boats on the Intracoastal Waterway.

President Bush toured ravaged areas of the Mississippi coast on Friday with Gov. Haley Barbour and other state officials. They also flew over flooded New Orleans.

"I'm going to tell you, Mississippi got hit much harder than they did, but what happened in the aftermath — it makes your stomach hurt to go miles and miles and miles and the houses are all under water up to the roof," Barbour said.

Keisha Moran has been living in a tent in a department store parking lot in Bay St. Louis with her boyfriend and three young children since the hurricane struck. She said National Guardsmen have brought her water but no other aid so far, and she was furious that it took Bush several days before he came to see the damage in Mississippi.

"It's how many days later? How many people are dead?" Moran said.

Mississippi's death toll from Hurricane Katrina stood at 144 on Saturday, according to confirmed reports from coroners and the Mississippi Emergency Management Agency. Barbour had said Friday the total was 147, but he didn't provide a county-by-county breakdown.

In a strongly worded editorial, The Sun Herald of Biloxi-Gulfport pleaded for help and questioned why a massive National Guard presence wasn't already visible.

"We understand that New Orleans also was devastated by Hurricane Katrina, but surely this nation has the resources to rescue both that metropolitan (area) and ours," the newspaper editorialized, saying survival basics like ice, gasoline and medicine have been too slow to arrive.

"We are not calling on the nation and the state to make life more comfortable in South Mississippi, we are calling on the nation and the state to make life here possible," the paper wrote.

By SHARON THEIMER, Associated Press Writer
Sat Sep 3, 6:38 PM ET

WASHINGTON - Another 10,000 National Guard troops are being sent to the hurricane-ravaged Gulf Coast, raising their number to about 40,000, but questions linger about the speed with which troops were deployed.

Several states ready and willing to send National Guard troops to the rescue in New Orleans didn't get the go-ahead until days after the storm struck — a delay nearly certain to be investigated by Congress.

New Mexico Gov. Bill Richardson offered Louisiana Gov. Kathleen Blanco help from his state's National Guard last Sunday, the day before Hurricane Katrina hit Louisiana. Blanco accepted, but paperwork needed to get the troops en route didn't come from Washington until late Thursday.

California troops just began arriving in Louisiana on Friday, three days after flood waters devastated New Orleans and chaos broke out.

In fact, when New Orleans' levees gave way to deadly flooding on Tuesday, Louisiana's National Guard had received help from troops in only three other states: Ohio, which had nine people in Louisiana then; Oklahoma, 89; and Texas, 625, figures provided by the National Guard show.

Maj. Gen. Thomas Cutler, who leads the Michigan National Guard, said he anticipated a call for police units and started preparing them, but couldn't go until states in the hurricane zone asked them to come.

"We could have had people on the road Tuesday," Cutler said. "We have to wait and respond to their need."

The Michigan National Guard was asked for military police by Mississippi late Tuesday and by Louisiana officials late Wednesday. The state sent 182 MPs to Mississippi on Friday and had 242 headed to Louisiana on Saturday.

Typically, the authority to use the National Guard in a state role lies with the governor, who tells his or her adjutant general to order individual Guard units to begin duty. Turnaround time varies depending on the number of troops involved, their location and their assigned missions.

One factor that may have further complicated post-Katrina deployment arose when Louisiana discovered it needed Guardsmen to do more law enforcement duty because a large portion of the New Orleans police force was not functioning, according to Lt. Gen. Steven H. Blum, chief of the National Guard Bureau at the

Because the agreement that was already in existence for states to contribute Guard troops to Louisiana did not include a provision on their use in law enforcement, Blum said, Gov. Blanco had to get separate written agreements authorizing Guardsmen to do police-type duty.

Still, Blum said, this took only minutes to execute.

With many states' Guard units depleted by deployments to
Iraq, Katrina's aftermath was almost certain from the beginning to require help from faraway states.

Republicans and Democrats alike in Congress are just beginning to ask why one of the National Guard's most trusted roles — disaster relief — was so uneven, delayed and chaotic this time around.

Sen. Chuck Hagel (news, bio, voting record), R-Neb., said the situation has shown major breakdowns in the nation's emergency response capabilities. "There must be some accountability in this process after the crisis is addressed," he said.

Democrat Ben Nelson, Nebraska's other senator, said he now questions National Guard leaders' earlier assertions that they had enough resources to respond to natural disasters even with the Iraq war.

"I'm going to ask that question again," Nelson said. "Do we have enough (troops), and if we do, why were they not deployed sooner?"

President Bush was asked that question Friday as he toured the hurricane-ravaged Gulf Coast area and said he disagrees with criticism the military is stretched too thin.

"We've got a job to defend this country in the war on terror, and we've got a job to bring aid and comfort to the people of the Gulf Coast, and we'll do both," he said.

Senate Armed Services Committee Chairman John Warner, R-Va., plans to make oversight of the Defense Department, the National Guard and their assistance his top priority when he returns to Washington next week from an overseas trips, spokesman John Ullyot said Friday.

Bush had the legal authority to order the National Guard to the disaster area himself, as he did after the Sept. 11, 2001 attacks . But the troops four years ago were deployed for national security protection, and presidents of both parties traditionally defer to governors to deploy their own National Guardsmen and request help from other states when it comes to natural disasters.

In addition to Guard help, the federal government could have activated, but did not, a major air support plan under a pre-existing contract with airlines. The program, called Civilian Reserve Air Fleet, lets the government quickly put private cargo and passenger planes into service.

The CRAF provision has been activated twice, once for the Persian
Gulf War and again for the Iraq war.


On the Net:

National Guard units:

Associated Press writers Kathy Barks Hoffman in Lansing, Mich.; Barry Massey in Santa Fe, N.M.; Chuck Brown in Omaha, Neb.; Paul Davenport in Phoenix and Devlin Barrett in Washington contributed to this story.

- - - - - - as long they probe this as well - - - - - -

City of New Orleans Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan


City of New Orleans Comprehensive Emergency Management PlanThe clearance times facing Orleans Parish for a severe hurricane will necessitate proper traffic control and early evacuating decision making. The evacuation must be completed before the arrival of gale force winds. Evacuation should also start when school is not in session and when there is at least eight (8) hours of daylight included in the evacuation time allowed. Provisions must be made for the removal of disabled vehicles. Flooding of roadways due to rainfall before a hurricane arrives could close off critical evacuation routes rendering evacuation impossible.


A. Mayor

* Initiate the evacuation.

* Retain overall control of all evacuation procedures via EOC operations.

* Authorize return to evacuated areas.

B. Office of Emergency Preparedness

* Activate EOC and notify all support agencies to this plan.

* Coordinate with State OEP on elements of evacuation.

* Assist in directing the transportation of evacuees to staging areas.

* Assist ESF-8, Health and Medical, in the evacuation of persons with special needs, nursing home, and hospital patients in accordance with established procedures.

* Coordinate the release of all public information through ESF-14, Public Information.

* Use EAS, television, cable and other public broadcast means as needed and in accordance with established procedure.

* Request additional law enforcement/traffic control (State Police, La. National Guard) from State OEP.

C. New Orleans Police Department

* Ensure orderly traffic flow.

* Assist in removing disabled vehicles from roadways as needed.

* Direct the management of transportation of seriously injured persons to hospitals as needed.

* Direct evacuees to proper shelters and/or staging areas once they have departed the threatened area.

* Release all public information through the ESF-14, Public Information.

D. Regional Transit Authority

* Supply transportation as needed in accordance with the current Standard Operating Procedures.

* Place special vehicles on alert to be utilized if needed.

* Position supervisors and dispatch evacuation buses.

* If warranted by scope of evacuation, implement additional service.

Louisiana Disaster Plan

'The primary means of hurricane evacuation will be personal vehicles. School and municipal buses, government-owned vehicles and vehicles provided by volunteer agencies may be used to provide transportation for individuals who lack transportation and require assistance in evacuating'...

I count 205 buses. When I was a kid, I remember that school buses could carry 66 people. If that is still the case, 13,530 people could be carried to safety in ONE trip using only the buses shown in the picture, the buses the mayor had at his disposal - and did nothing.

One trip, damn it! And the mayor is crying about what's been happening?

Amazing! Absolutely freakin' amazing!

Chief Justice Rehnquist Dies at His Home

By GINA HOLLAND, Associated Press Writer
8:50 ET

WASHINGTON - Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist died Saturday evening at his home in suburban Virginia, said Supreme Court spokeswoman Kathy Arberg.

A statement from the spokeswoman said he was surrounded by his three children when he died in Arlington.

"The Chief Justice battled thyroid cancer since being diagnosed last October and continued to perform his duties on the court until a precipitous decline in his health the last couple of days," she said.

Rehnquist was appointed to the Supreme Court as an associate justice in 1971 by President Nixon and took his seat on Jan. 7, 1982. He was elevated to chief justice by President Reagan in 1986.

His death ends a remarkable 33-year Supreme Court career during which Rehnquist oversaw the court's conservative shift, presided over an impeachment trial and helped decide a presidential election.

The death gives President Bush his second court opening within four months and sets up what's expected to be an even more bruising Senate confirmation battle than that of John Roberts.

It was not immediately clear what impact Rehnquist's death would have on confirmation hearings for Roberts, scheduled to begin Tuesday.

Rehnquist, 80 and ill with cancer, presided over President Clinton's impeachment trial in 1999, helped settle the 2000 presidential election in Bush's favor, and fashioned decisions over the years that diluted the powers of the federal government while strengthening those of the states.

Arberg said plans regarding funeral arrangements would be forthcoming.

Bush was notified of Rehnquist's death shortly before 11 p.m. EDT.

"President Bush and Mrs. Bush are saddened by the news," said White House counselor Dan Bartlett. "It's a tremendous loss for our nation." The president was expected to make a personal statement about Rehnquist on Sunday.

The chief justice passed up a chance to step down over the summer, which would have given the Senate a chance to confirm his successor while the court was out of session, and instead Justice Sandra Day O'Connor announced her retirement to spend time with her ill husband. Bush chose Roberts, a former Rehnquist clerk and friend, to replace O'Connor.

Rehnquist said in July that he wanted to stay on the bench as long as his health would allow.

The president could elevate to chief justice one of the court's conservatives, such as Antonin Scalia or Clarence Thomas, but it's more likely he will choose someone from outside the court.

Possible replacements include Attorney General Alberto R. Gonzales and federal courts of appeals judges J. Michael Luttig, Edith Clement, Samuel A. Alito Jr., Michael McConnell, Emilio Garza, and James Harvie Wilkinson III. Others mentioned are former Solicitor General Theodore Olson, lawyer Miguel Estrada and former deputy attorney general Larry Thompson.

Rehnquist announced last October that he had thyroid cancer. He had a trachea tube inserted to help him breathe and underwent radiation and chemotherapy treatments. Details of the chief justice's illness and his plans had been tightly guarded. He looked frail at Bush's inauguration in January and missed five months of court sessions before returning to the bench in March.

On the court's final meeting day of the last term, June 27, Rehnquist appeared gaunt and had difficulty as he announced the last decision of the term — an opinion he wrote upholding a Ten Commandments display in Texas. His breathing was labored, and he kept the explanation short.

He had no public appearances over the summer, although he was filmed by television crews in July as he left the hospital following two nights for treatment of a fever.

Rehnquist had an extraordinary career, with many historic milestones.

In 1999, he presided over Bill Clinton's impeachment trial from the presiding officer's chair seat in the Senate, something only one other chief justice had done. A year later he was one of five Republican-nominated justices who voted to stop presidential ballot recounts in Florida, effectively deciding the election for Bush over Democrat Al Gore.

"The Supreme Court of Florida ordered recounts of tens of thousands of so-called `undervotes' spread through 64 of the state's 67 counties. This was done in a search for elusive — perhaps delusive — certainty as to the exact count of 6 million votes," he wrote.

Rehnquist, who championed states' rights and helped speed up executions, is the only member still on the court who voted on Roe v. Wade, the landmark 1973 decision legalizing abortion. He opposed that decision, writing: "Even today, when society's views on abortion are changing, the very existence of the debate is evidence that the `right' to an abortion is not so universally accepted as (Roe) would have us believe."

He believed there was a place for some religion in government. He wrote the 5-4 decision in 2002 that said parents may use public tax money to send their children to religious schools. Two years later, he was distressed when the court passed up a chance to declare that the Pledge of Allegiance in public schools is constitutional.

"The phrase 'under God' in the pledge seems, as a historical matter, to sum up the attitude of the nation's leaders, and to manifest itself in many of our public observances," he wrote.

Rehnquist leaves without accomplishing the legal revolution he had hoped for as the nation's 16th chief justice. As Rehnquist read it, the Constitution lets states outlaw abortion and sponsor prayers in public schools but bars them from giving special, affirmative-action preferences to racial minorities and women. The court he led disagreed.

In 2003, for example, the court preserved affirmative action in college admissions and issued a landmark gay rights ruling that struck down laws criminalizing gay sex, both over Rehnquist's objections. And last year, Rehnquist disagreed when the court ruled that the government cannot indefinitely detain terrorism suspects and deny them access to courts.

Rehnquist was somewhat of a surprise choice when President Nixon nominated him to the court in 1971. He was a 47-year-old Justice Department lawyer with a reputation for brilliance and unbending conservative ideology when he was chosen to fill the seat of retiring Justice John Marshall Harlan. Rehnquist, who practiced law in Phoenix before moving to Washington, was the court's youngest member.

For years he was known as the "Lone Ranger" for his many dissents on a then-liberal court that left him ideologically isolated on the far right. Succeeding appointments of conservative justices and Rehnquist's elevation by President Reagan to the federal judiciary's top job in 1986 transformed his role into one of leading and nurturing an increasingly conservative Supreme Court.

Rehnquist was the force behind the court's push for greater states' rights. The chief justice has been the leader of five conservatives, sometimes called "the Rehnquist five," who generally advocate limited federal government interference.

Those five — Rehnquist and O'Connor, Scalia, Anthony Kennedy and Thomas — have voted together to strike down federal laws intended to protect female victims of violent crime and keep guns away from schools, on grounds that those issues were better dealt with at the local level. They split, however, in a recent decision upholding the federal government's right to ban sick people from smoking marijuana even in states that have laws allowing the treatment.

The Rehnquist five were together in the Bush v. Gore decision, which critics predicted would tarnish the court's hard-won luster. The closing paragraph of a book Rehnquist wrote on the court's history may stand as his answer to criticism.

Rehnquist noted that the court makes "demonstrable errors" from time to time, but he added, "It and the country have survived these mistakes and the court as an institution has steadily grown in authority and prestige."

He had deflected criticism about his views on race during his 1971 confirmation, and the one 15 years later when he became chief justice. As a law clerk to Justice Robert Jackson, Rehnquist wrote memos in 1952 that appeared to suggest Jackson should oppose Brown v. Board of Education, the landmark ruling that declared public school segregation unconstitutional.

As chief justice, Rehnquist drew complaints when he led a group of lawyers and judges in a rendition of "Dixie" at a conference in Virginia in 1999. He did not respond to a black lawyers' organization that called the song an offensive "symbol of slavery and oppression."

Rehnquist, a widower since 1991, dodged questions about his legacy in a March 2004 interview. He said that he tried to keep the court running smoothly and keep the peace among the justices.

"To get everybody working harmoniously together is not a small feat," he said on PBS's "The Charlie Rose Show." "You have to have a very high boiling point."

Within the court, Rehnquist was a far more popular chief justice than his predecessor, Warren Burger. Liberal Justice John Paul Stevens said in 2002 that Rehnquist brought "efficiency, good humor and absolute impartiality" to the job. Some justices complained that Burger was heavy-handed and pompous.

Rehnquist's grandparents emigrated to the United States from Sweden in 1880 and settled in Chicago. His grandfather was a tailor, his grandmother a school teacher. Rehnquist grew up in Wisconsin, the son of paper salesman and a translator.

He at first had planned to be a college professor, but a test showed him suited to the legal field. In 1952, he graduated first in his class at Stanford University's law school, where he briefly dated O'Connor, the high court's first female justice.

Rehnquist caused great amusement when he departed from tradition by adding four shiny gold stripes to each sleeve of his black robe in 1995. The flourish was inspired by a costume in a Gilbert & Sullivan operetta.

A close student of the Supreme Court's traditions and history, he was a stickler for decorum. He frequently admonished hapless lawyers who did not show what Rehnquist regarded as proper courtesy in the courtroom. His gravelly monotone silenced any who kept talking past their allotted time.

He was the enthusiastic host of an annual, old-fashioned employee Christmas party at the court. At a time when many schools, government offices and private businesses quietly did away with overtly Christian holiday symbols, Rehnquist led the singing of traditional Christmas carols.

Rehnquist has led a quiet social life outside the court. Until recently, he walked daily, as tonic for a chronic bad back, and played tennis with his law clerks. He enjoyed bridge, spending time with his eight grandchildren, charades and a monthly poker game with Scalia and a revolving cast of powerful Washington men. He liked beer, and smoked in private.

The only chief justice older than Rehnquist was Roger Taney, who presided over the high court in the mid-1800s until his death at 87. Rehnquist was also closing in on the record for longest-serving justice. Only four men were on the court 34 years or longer.

On the Net:

Supreme Court:

I have always felt that both elections were rigged. He is running America into the ground, he is a coward that can't even face a woman. He had to go on TV to tell her how he feels, he is being a great example to his children showing them that it is okay to be a coward. I can't believe the language being used here on this site, we are to be adults, but most act as though they are children with their choice of words. My spirit tells me the ones with the foul mouths are the ones that voted for the devil, the wolf in sheeps clothing. We the people need to get him out of office.

You folks living in la-la-land make decisions based 'feelings' instead of basing then on facts. Your beloved NY Times, Washington Post, Chicago Tribune and Minneapolis Whatever were all involved in the media 'recount' of the Florida ballots from Election 2000. Guess what, whiner? Even they admitted that Al Gore was a - umm - the loser.

In 2004, Jean-Pierre was his own train wreck, no further comment needed on that.

If you want to discuss a real stolen election, try 1960 when Nazi sympathizer Joe Kennedy bought the tombstone vote in Chicago. At least we got some great tax cuts from that, although the attorney general was the biggest sonofabitch to ever hold that position (you can get transcripts of the secret recordings he had made of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. from the National Archives).

Maybe you'll next want to complain about how the Republicans stole the election of 1860?

Grow up!!!

You are clearly a misinformed Bush supporter. That is no surprise since most of you are either misinformed or uninformed. Your facts are wrong and your assertions about other people's decision-making criteria are wrong. Your childish rant does not solidify your argument either. As someone who has been working on election problems for quite some time, I would suggest that you grow up and educate yourself (that would require you to use sources other than Fox News and Rush Limbaugh). You should also learn to identify actual facts and not use made up "facts" and twisted half-truths from the right wing. Learn to look at the big picture and not the see the world through your small, narrow, conservative lens. There are a lot more pieces to most world events than people like you even acknowledge. Anyone can twist information to fit a small world view. Not much of an accomplishment and usually not much truth either.

You are clearly a deluded communo-socialist. That is no surprise since most of you are misinformed, uninformed, or just clueless. You rely on such losers as Randi Rhodes, Al Franken, Michael Moore and other Hollyweird Half-wits for your "facts" and talking points.

As someone who is an expert on the electoral process, I would strongly suggest that you forget about the weirdos who have seized control of the Democratic Party, for they are guaranteeing that the Republican Party will remain in control for many, many years to come [thank God!!!].

You should also learn to identify actual facts and not use made up "facts" and twisted half-truths from the Loony Left. Learn to look at the big picture and not the see the world through your small, narrow, "Republicans are Nazis" lens.

There's more to life than people of your ilk are fearful of acknowledging. Any moron can twist information to fit the small world that exists in the Leftisphere.

I am sorry that your educational experience has been so poor that you are unable to write or think for yourself. Instead you just pathetically parrot what others say. Write your own comments from now on and stop plagiarizing me or anyone else. No wonder you are a Bush supporter - it is easier than thinking!

What in the world was plagiarized? I've looked at the posts in this thread and see nothing that fits the definition of plagiarism.

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